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PublicationPublic Expenditure Review for Armenia(Washington, DC, 2003-08) World BankThis is the first full-scale World Bank Public Expenditure Review for Armenia, which reviews the main fiscal trends in the country for the period 1997-2001, and develops recommendations with respect to further fiscal adjustment, expenditure prioritization, and budget consolidation. The analysis focuses on core issues, i.e., sustainability of fiscal adjustment, fiscal transparency, expenditure priorities, and short-term expenditure management, given the existing economy-wide institutional constraints. The study covers extra-budgetary funds, in-kind external grants, subsidies provided by the state-owned companies in the energy, and utility sectors, and operations of the Social Insurance Fund, as well as regular spending. It suggests a medium-term action plan to address identified weaknesses. Sectoral chapters review health, education, and social protection and insurance. The study also analyzes budget support for core public infrastructure, and the country's public investment program. PublicationNon-bank Financial Institutions and Capital Markets in Turkey(Washington, DC, 2003-04) World BankThis study analyses the state of development, and prospects of future growth of Turkish non-bank financial institutions, and capital markets. Currently, credit markets in Turkey are dominated by banking, and capital markets are dominated by Government securities. Longstanding macro-economic instability, and inflation have discouraged investment in financial assets, and crowded out funding for the private sector. The resulting lack of depth, and breadth has made the financial sector vulnerable to shocks, resulting in repeated crises, and, has reduced its intermediation efficiency. To enhance the financial sector's capacity to support private sector development, and economic growth, and to reduce its vulnerability to shocks, non-bank sources of finance should be developed. The report identifies the key policy issues that should be addressed for this purpose. The discussion, and policy recommendations are structured around the following leading themes: a) mobilizing savings; b) building an institutional investor base, comprising insurance companies, private pension funds, and mutual funds; c) developing equity, debt, and derivative markets; d) developing leasing, factoring, and venture capital companies; and, e) strengthening confidence in financial markets through improved corporate governance, accounting and auditing standards, and practices, and, financial sector regulation, and supervision. PublicationGrowth Challenges and Government Policies in Armenia(Washington, DC, 2002-02) World BankThis report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to sustain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.