State and Trends of Carbon Pricing

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The State and Trends of Carbon Pricing series reflects on the growing momentum for carbon pricing worldwide. It targets public and private stakeholders engaged in carbon pricing design and implementation. This report provides an overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including regional, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development of these instruments and how they could accelerate to deliver long-term mitigation goals. While the State and Trends is published annually, the carbon pricing dashboard provides up-to-date information on existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. The dashboard is an online interactive platform that allows users to visualize, download and compare carbon pricing in different parts of the world. https://carbonpricingdashboard.worldbank.org

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State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2015

2015-09-20, Kossoy, Alexandre, Peszko, Grzegorz, Oppermann, Klaus, Prytz, Nicolai, Klein, Noemie, Blok, Kornelis, Lam, Long, Wong, Lindee, Borkent, Bram

The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. A challenging international carbon market has not stopped the development of domestic carbon pricing initiatives. Today, about 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions responsible for almost one fourth of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Together, these initiatives cover the equivalent of almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide, or about 12% of global emissions.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011

2011-06, Linacre, Nicholas, Kossoy, Alexandre, Ambrosi, Philippe

After five consecutive years of robust growth, the total value of the global carbon market stalled at $142 billion. Suffering from the lack of post-2012 regulatory clarity, the value of the primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market fell by double-digits for the third year in a row, ending lower than it was in 2005, the first year of the Kyoto protocol. The Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) and the United States Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) markets shrank as well. As these segments declined, the dominance of the European Union Allowances (EUAs) market became more pronounced than ever and the share of the carbon market primarily driven by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) rose to 97 percent, dwarfing the remaining segments of the market. The carbon market growth halted at a particularly inopportune time: 2010 proved to be the hottest on record, while emission levels continued their seemingly inexorable rise. In the end, however, the year may be remembered most for the political opportunities that arose, yet were ultimately failed to materialize in the United States, Japan, Australia, and the Republic of Korea. While the international regulatory environment remains uncertain, national and local initiatives have noticeably picked up and may offer the potential to collectively overcome the international regulatory gap. These initiatives signal that, one way or another, solutions that address the climate challenge will emerge.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008

2008-05, Capoor, Karan, Ambrosi, Philippe

The carbon market is the most visible result of early regulatory efforts to mitigate climate change. Regulation constraining carbon emissions has spawned an emerging carbon market that was valued at US$64 billion (Euro 47 billion) in 2007. Its biggest success so far has been to send market signals for the price of mitigating carbon emissions. This, in turn, has stimulated innovation and carbon abatement worldwide, as motivated individuals, communities, companies and governments have cooperated to reduce emissions. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) market has been successful in its mission of reducing emissions through internal abatement at home, and of stimulating emission reductions abroad. The European Commission, learning from the experience of Phase I, has strengthened several important design elements for EU ETS Phase II. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) accounted for the vast majority of project-based transactions (at 87 percent of volumes and 91percent of values) and JI saw transacted volumes doubling and values tripling in 2007 over the previous year. The CDM alone saw primary transactions worth US$7.4 billion (Euro 5.4 billion), with demand coming mainly from private sector entities in the EU, but also from EU governments and Japan.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2006 : Update, January 1-September 30, 2006

2006-10, Capoor, Karan, Ambrosi, Philippe

Carbon transactions are defined as purchase contracts or ERPAs (Emission Reductions Purchase Agreements) whereby one party pays another party in return for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions that the buyer can use to meet its compliance or corporate citizenship - objectives vis-a-vis GHG mitigation. Payment is made using one or more of the following forms: cash, equity, debt, or in-kind contributions. This paper includes the following headings: executive summary; methodology; allowance-based markets; project-based markets; investment climate and regulatory environment; and regulatory outlook.

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Carbon Pricing Watch 2015

2015-05-26, Kossoy, Alexandre, Peszko, Grzegorz, Oppermann, Klaus, Prytz, Nicolai, Gilbert, Alyssa, Klein, Noemie, Lam, Long, Wong, Lindee

Significant progress in carbon pricing has been made over the last ten years. In 2015, about 40 national and over 20 subnational jurisdictions, representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), are putting a price on carbon. Together, the carbon pricing instruments in these jurisdictions cover about half of their emissions, which translates into approximately 7 GtCO2e or about 12 percent of annual global GHG emissions. This figure represents a threefold increase over the past decade. The total value of the emissions trading schemes (ETSs) reported in the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014 report was about US$30 billion (US$32 billion to be precise). Despite the repeal of Australia’s Carbon Pricing Mechanism in July 2014, and mainly due to the launch of the Korean ETS and the expansion of GHG emissions coverage in the California and Quebec ETSs, the value of global ETSs as of April 1, 2015 increased slightly to about US$34 billion. In addition, carbon taxes around the world, valued for the first time in this report, are about US$14 billion. Combined, the value of the carbon pricing mechanism globally in 2015 is estimated to be just under US$50 billion.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2010

2010-05, Kossoy, Alexandre, Ambrosi, Philippe

The carbon market endured its most challenging year to date in 2009. The global economic crisis, which started in late 2008 and intensified early in 2009, negatively impacted both the demand and supply sides of the market. As industrial output plummeted the demand for carbon assets fell. Yet even as global GDP declined by 0.6 percent in 2009, and at a more perilous rate of 3.2 percent in industrialized economies, the carbon market demonstrated resilience. The total value of the market grew 6 percent to US$144 billion ( 103 billion) by year s end with 8.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) trade.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2007

2007-05, Capoor, Karan, Ambrosi, Philippe

This report points out that there is a tendency to believe that the carbon market is somehow a magic bullet that will alone save the world from global warming. While the authors recognize the enormous strength and potential of the market to achieve results, it would be wise not to assume the market will provide a painless, magical way to mitigate climate change. First, the market does not set the level of a cap, policy-makers do. The market can only be a tool to help achieve that target. It cannot be a surrogate for a target and policy makes should not expect to be let off the hook from their jobs - making sensible policy. Second, policy makers need to set targets and support mechanisms that meet two massive challenges. They have the responsibility of taking into account the risks of climate change, especially on the poorest, as well as the opportunity of expanding clean development choices to meet the basic needs and aspirations of billions worldwide, many without access to electricity or clean water. Third, there is no free lunch. The exuberance of creating value - and enormous wealth - in a new market should not mask the fact that there are costs for mitigation. Fourth, the integrity of a market rests on the clarity and simplicity of its rules, the transparency of information and on institutions that guard against fraud and manipulation. Fifth, it is not fair to expect "cap-and-trade" or emissions trading to work in all sectors globally; clearly, housing and transport are sectors that do not lend themselves easily to an elegant emissions cap-and-trade approach. There may be other policies - including other market-based approaches or removal of subsidies - that may be more suitable in some contexts. Finally, a solution to urgent problem of the climate change problem will require sustained effort by all of us. Markets can, to a certain extent, accommodate the appetite that individuals and companies in Europe, Japan, North America, Australia and beyond have for carbon emission reductions that go well beyond what their law makers require of them. This high-potential voluntary segment, however, lacks a generally acceptable standard, which remains a significant reputation risk not only to its own prospects, but also to the rest of the market, including the segments of regulated emissions trading and project offsets.

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State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014

2014-05-28, Kossoy, Alexandre, Oppermann, Klaus, Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina, Suphachalasai, Suphachol, Höhne, Niklas, Klein, Noémie, Gilbert, Alyssa, Lam, Long, Toop, Gemma, Wu, Qian, Hagemann, Markus, Casanova-Allende, Carlos, Li, Lina, Borkent, Bram, Warnecke, Carsten, Wong, Lindee

This report follows the evolution of carbon pricing around the world. Last year's report mapped the main carbon pricing initiatives. This year the report presents the status of each of these developing initiatives and explores the emerging trends of carbon pricing. The focus is on the recent highlights from around the world and on key lessons that can be drawn from the growing experience. Despite the difficult ongoing international climate negotiations, there is an increased focus on climate change policy and several economies are planning, implementing or refining domestic mitigation actions. These activities take careful note of past experiences, mirroring successes and dealing with weaknesses. About 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions are putting a price on carbon. Together these carbon pricing instruments cover almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e), or about 12 percent of the annual global GHG emissions. Cooperation remains a key feature of success The international market has been struggling for some time. However, the current spate of domestic action has been buoyed by growing cooperation among regional, national and sub-national stakeholders. Piloting and scaling up carbon pricing on an international level and increasing climate finance through market-based mechanisms is an important first step. The next challenge will be to create a product that is greater than the sum of its parts by converting fragmented initiatives into internationally integrated carbon pricing approaches.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2009

2009-05, Capoor, Karan, Ambrosi, Philippe

Over the past year, the global economy has cooled significantly, a far cry from the boom just a year ago in various countries and across markets. At the same time, the scientific community communicated the heightened urgency of taking action on climate change. Policymakers at national, regional, and international levels have put forward proposals to respond to the climate challenge. The most concrete of these is the adopted European Union (EU) climate and energy package (20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020), which guarantees a level of carbon market continuity beyond 2012. The EU package, along with proposals from the U.S. and Australia, tries to address the key issues of ambition, flexibility, scope, and competitiveness. Taken together, the proposals tabled by the major industrialized countries do not match the aggregate level of annex one ambition called for by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC (25-40 percent reductions below 1990). Setting targets in line with the science will send the right market signal to stimulate greater cooperation with developing countries to scale up mitigation.

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State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2006 : A Focus on Africa

2006-11, Capoor, Karan, Ambrosi, Philippe

Many African countries have thin energy and industrial sectors with limited opportunities to reduce carbon emissions, certainly relative to countries such as China and India. Carbon sequestration from avoided deforestation and from agriculture--potentially important areas for climate mitigation and important in many African economies--has been systematically excluded from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). At the same time, CDM-eligible assets from afforestation and reforestation are excluded from entry into the large European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), substantially limiting their market value and potential share in the multi-billion dollar global carbon market. The Africa share of the CDM market is lower than the share of African countries to developing nations in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) over the past few years, which has been around 10 percent.