State and Trends of Carbon Pricing

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The State and Trends of Carbon Pricing series reflects on the growing momentum for carbon pricing worldwide. It targets public and private stakeholders engaged in carbon pricing design and implementation. This report provides an overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including regional, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development of these instruments and how they could accelerate to deliver long-term mitigation goals. While the State and Trends is published annually, the carbon pricing dashboard provides up-to-date information on existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. The dashboard is an online interactive platform that allows users to visualize, download and compare carbon pricing in different parts of the world.

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    Carbon Pricing Watch 2015
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05-26) Kossoy, Alexandre ; Peszko, Grzegorz ; Oppermann, Klaus ; Prytz, Nicolai ; Gilbert, Alyssa ; Klein, Noemie ; Lam, Long ; Wong, Lindee
    Significant progress in carbon pricing has been made over the last ten years. In 2015, about 40 national and over 20 subnational jurisdictions, representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), are putting a price on carbon. Together, the carbon pricing instruments in these jurisdictions cover about half of their emissions, which translates into approximately 7 GtCO2e or about 12 percent of annual global GHG emissions. This figure represents a threefold increase over the past decade. The total value of the emissions trading schemes (ETSs) reported in the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014 report was about US$30 billion (US$32 billion to be precise). Despite the repeal of Australia’s Carbon Pricing Mechanism in July 2014, and mainly due to the launch of the Korean ETS and the expansion of GHG emissions coverage in the California and Quebec ETSs, the value of global ETSs as of April 1, 2015 increased slightly to about US$34 billion. In addition, carbon taxes around the world, valued for the first time in this report, are about US$14 billion. Combined, the value of the carbon pricing mechanism globally in 2015 is estimated to be just under US$50 billion.
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    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-05-28) Kossoy, Alexandre ; Oppermann, Klaus ; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina ; Suphachalasai, Suphachol ; Höhne, Niklas ; Klein, Noémie ; Gilbert, Alyssa ; Lam, Long ; Toop, Gemma ; Wu, Qian ; Hagemann, Markus ; Casanova-Allende, Carlos ; Li, Lina ; Borkent, Bram ; Warnecke, Carsten ; Wong, Lindee
    This report follows the evolution of carbon pricing around the world. Last year's report mapped the main carbon pricing initiatives. This year the report presents the status of each of these developing initiatives and explores the emerging trends of carbon pricing. The focus is on the recent highlights from around the world and on key lessons that can be drawn from the growing experience. Despite the difficult ongoing international climate negotiations, there is an increased focus on climate change policy and several economies are planning, implementing or refining domestic mitigation actions. These activities take careful note of past experiences, mirroring successes and dealing with weaknesses. About 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions are putting a price on carbon. Together these carbon pricing instruments cover almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e), or about 12 percent of the annual global GHG emissions. Cooperation remains a key feature of success The international market has been struggling for some time. However, the current spate of domestic action has been buoyed by growing cooperation among regional, national and sub-national stakeholders. Piloting and scaling up carbon pricing on an international level and increasing climate finance through market-based mechanisms is an important first step. The next challenge will be to create a product that is greater than the sum of its parts by converting fragmented initiatives into internationally integrated carbon pricing approaches.
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    State and Trends of the Carbon Market—2004
    ( 2005) Lecocq, Franck
    This study describes the status of the emerging carbon market, as of May 2004. The carbon market encompasses trades of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission allowances (under the European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme), and project-based transactions, whereby a buyer participates in the financing of a project that reduces GHG emissions, compared with what would have happened otherwise, and gets emission reduction credits in exchange (for example, Clean Development Mechanism, or Joint Implementation projects under the Kyoto Protocol). The study finds that the carbon market is growing steadily. A total of 64 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) has been exchanged through projects from January to May 2004, nearly as much as during the whole year 2003 (78 million). Furthermore, the demand for emission reductions remains heavily concentrated, with a few EU governments, and Japanese firms the largest buyers. Finally, Asia is now the largest supplier of emission reductions, followed by Latin America, developed economies, and Eastern Europe. Prices of project-based emission reductions in early 2004 have remained essentially stable compared with 2003. In the absence of a standard contract, these prices strongly depend on the structure of the transaction, notably risk-sharing between buyers and sellers.