State and Trends of Carbon Pricing

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The State and Trends of Carbon Pricing series reflects on the growing momentum for carbon pricing worldwide. It targets public and private stakeholders engaged in carbon pricing design and implementation. This report provides an overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including regional, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development of these instruments and how they could accelerate to deliver long-term mitigation goals. While the State and Trends is published annually, the carbon pricing dashboard provides up-to-date information on existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. The dashboard is an online interactive platform that allows users to visualize, download and compare carbon pricing in different parts of the world. https://carbonpricingdashboard.worldbank.org

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  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2022
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-05-24) World Bank
    This report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including international, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development and implementation of carbon pricing instruments and how they could accelerate the delivery of long-term mitigation goals. Specifically, this includes the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading systems and crediting mechanisms. Key topics covered in the 2022 report include cross-border approaches to carbon pricing, challenges and opportunities from rising energy prices, and new technologies and governance frameworks shaping carbon markets.
  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2021
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-05-25) World Bank
    This report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including international, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development and implementation of carbon pricing instruments and how they could accelerate the delivery of long-term mitigation goals. Specifically, this includes the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading systems and crediting mechanisms. International cooperation on carbon pricing and the status of work surrounding Article 6 of the Paris Agreement is also canvassed.
  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2020
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-05-27) World Bank
    This report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including international, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development and implementation of carbon pricing instruments and how they could accelerate the delivery of long-term mitigation goals. Specifically, this includes the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading systems and crediting mechanisms. International cooperation on carbon pricing and the status of work surrounding Article 6 of the Paris Agreement is also canvassed.
  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2019
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019-06-06) World Bank Group
    This report provides an up-to-date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including international, national and subnational initiatives. It also investigates trends surrounding the development and implementation of carbon pricing instruments and how they could accelerate the delivery of long-term mitigation goals. This edition also discusses the relation between policies that put an explicit price on carbon and policies that put an implicit price on carbon.
  • Publication
    Carbon Pricing Watch 2017
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2017-05-22) World Bank; Ecofys
    The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. There is a continued momentum for carbon pricing. As of 2017, over 40 national and 25 subnational jurisdictions representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Over the past decade the number of jurisdictions with carbon pricing initiatives have doubled. On average, carbon pricing initiatives cover about half of the emissions in these jurisdictions, which translates to a total coverage of about 8 Gigatons of carbon dioxide or about 15% of global emissions (a fourfold increase over the past decade).
  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2015
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015-09-20) Kossoy, Alexandre; Peszko, Grzegorz; Oppermann, Klaus; Prytz, Nicolai; Klein, Noemie; Blok, Kornelis; Lam, Long; Wong, Lindee; Borkent, Bram
    The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. A challenging international carbon market has not stopped the development of domestic carbon pricing initiatives. Today, about 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions responsible for almost one fourth of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Together, these initiatives cover the equivalent of almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide, or about 12% of global emissions.
  • Publication
    Carbon Pricing Watch 2015
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05-26) Kossoy, Alexandre; Peszko, Grzegorz; Oppermann, Klaus; Prytz, Nicolai; Gilbert, Alyssa; Klein, Noemie; Lam, Long; Wong, Lindee
    Significant progress in carbon pricing has been made over the last ten years. In 2015, about 40 national and over 20 subnational jurisdictions, representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), are putting a price on carbon. Together, the carbon pricing instruments in these jurisdictions cover about half of their emissions, which translates into approximately 7 GtCO2e or about 12 percent of annual global GHG emissions. This figure represents a threefold increase over the past decade. The total value of the emissions trading schemes (ETSs) reported in the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014 report was about US$30 billion (US$32 billion to be precise). Despite the repeal of Australia’s Carbon Pricing Mechanism in July 2014, and mainly due to the launch of the Korean ETS and the expansion of GHG emissions coverage in the California and Quebec ETSs, the value of global ETSs as of April 1, 2015 increased slightly to about US$34 billion. In addition, carbon taxes around the world, valued for the first time in this report, are about US$14 billion. Combined, the value of the carbon pricing mechanism globally in 2015 is estimated to be just under US$50 billion.
  • Publication
    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-05-28) Kossoy, Alexandre; Oppermann, Klaus; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Suphachalasai, Suphachol; Höhne, Niklas; Klein, Noémie; Gilbert, Alyssa; Lam, Long; Toop, Gemma; Wu, Qian; Hagemann, Markus; Casanova-Allende, Carlos; Li, Lina; Borkent, Bram; Warnecke, Carsten; Wong, Lindee
    This report follows the evolution of carbon pricing around the world. Last year's report mapped the main carbon pricing initiatives. This year the report presents the status of each of these developing initiatives and explores the emerging trends of carbon pricing. The focus is on the recent highlights from around the world and on key lessons that can be drawn from the growing experience. Despite the difficult ongoing international climate negotiations, there is an increased focus on climate change policy and several economies are planning, implementing or refining domestic mitigation actions. These activities take careful note of past experiences, mirroring successes and dealing with weaknesses. About 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions are putting a price on carbon. Together these carbon pricing instruments cover almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e), or about 12 percent of the annual global GHG emissions. Cooperation remains a key feature of success The international market has been struggling for some time. However, the current spate of domestic action has been buoyed by growing cooperation among regional, national and sub-national stakeholders. Piloting and scaling up carbon pricing on an international level and increasing climate finance through market-based mechanisms is an important first step. The next challenge will be to create a product that is greater than the sum of its parts by converting fragmented initiatives into internationally integrated carbon pricing approaches.
  • Publication
    Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives : Developments and Prospects 2013
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05) Kossoy, Alexandre; Oppermann, Klaus; Reddy, Rama Chandra; Bosi, Martina; Boukerche, Sandrine; Höhne, Niklas; Klein, Noémie; Gilbert, Alyssa; Jung, Martina; Borkent, Bram; Lam, Long; Röser, Frauke; Braun, Nadine; Hänsel, Gesine; Warnecke, Carsten
    The Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives Report maps existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. It does not provide a quantitative, transaction-based analysis of the international carbon market since current market conditions invalidate any attempt to undertake such an analysis. The development of national and subnational carbon pricing initiatives in an increasing number of countries calls for a different focus. The uncertainty surrounding the existing carbon markets in the last years has prevented valuable resources to be channeled to low-carbon investments, particularly from the private sector. Following the economic downturn and slow economic recovery in major economies, industrial output plummeted and the demand for carbon assets used for compliance fell. With limited support, prices reached historical lows. At the same time, several national and sub-national carbon pricing initiatives are emerging. It is not surprising that several of these new carbon pricing initiatives also include design features to prevent similar developments in the future, including mechanisms to stabilize the carbon price.
  • Publication
    State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-05) Kossoy, Alexandre; Guigon, Pierre
    The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market, in support of a global solution to the climate challenge.