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PublicationDominican Republic Country Climate and Development Report(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-30) World Bank GroupThe Dominican Republic has made significant progress in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty, but it still faces challenges to achieve inclusive and equitable development, increase productivity, and improve the competitiveness and sustainability of primary sectors like agriculture, water, tourism, and energy. The National Development Strategy (NDS) and the National Multi‑Year Public Sector Plan (NPSP) aim to address development and climate challenges and promote a green, inclusive and resilient future. The DR is highly vulnerable to climate change, which is likely to compound existing development challenges. By 2050, climate change impacts are expected to decrease labor productivity and affect health, crop yields, tourism, infrastructure capital, and natural ecosystems such as forests and coastal areas. Climate change also poses risks to the financial system such as the banking sector's heightened credit exposure to tropical cyclones and droughts. Although the DR has a small carbon footprint, the country's GHG emissions have been rising, mainly in the energy, waste, and agricultural sectors. Fostering a low‑carbon growth path can support the country's climate change goals while bringing important development co‑benefits. The Dominican Republic CCDR employs a version of the MANAGE model. This CCDR further extends the model to incorporate the path of emissions from key sectors (transport, energy, AFOLU), and to incorporate DR‑specific climate damage functions to introduce the impact of climate change on the economy. PublicationArgentina Country Climate and Development Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-11) World Bank GroupThe Argentina Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores opportunities and identifies trade-offs for aligning Argentina’s growth and poverty reduction policies with its commitments on, and its ability to withstand, climate change. It assesses how the country can: reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks through targeted public and private investments and adequation of social protection. The report also shows how Argentina can seize the benefits of a global decarbonization path to sustain a more robust economic growth through further development of Argentina’s potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency actions, the lithium value chain, as well as climate-smart agriculture (and land use) options. Given Argentina’s context, this CCDR focuses on win-win policies and investments, which have large co-benefits or can contribute to raising the country’s growth while helping to adapt the economy, also considering how human capital actions can accompany a just transition. PublicationPeru Country Climate and Development Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-11) World Bank GroupThe Peru Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on integrating the country’s efforts to achieve economic development with the pursuit of emission reduction and climate resilience. The CCDR explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning Peru’s development path with its recent commitments on climate change. Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change and needs urgent adaptation action. Peru can benefit from decarbonization policies, thanks to its mining, forestry and agriculture, and renewable energy resources. Peru has many opportunities to develop and implement comprehensive climate policies that also increase productivity and reduce poverty. A low-carbon, resilient development for Peru would require substantial institutional reforms, in addition to public and private investments. PublicationA Roadmap for Climate Action in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2021-2025(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank GroupIn Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) the rapidly changing climate is increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather‑related events. The year 2020 saw the most catastrophic fire season over the Pantanal region and a record number of storms during the Atlantic cyclone season. Eta and Iota, two category 4 hurricanes, affected more than 8 million people in Central America, causing tens of billions of dollars in damage. In Honduras, annual average losses due to climate‑related shocks are estimated at 2.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). In rankings of the impacts of extreme weather events from 2000 to 2019, five Caribbean nations figure among the top 20 globally in terms of fatalities per capita, while in terms of economic losses as a share of GDP eight of the top 20 countries are in the Caribbean. Extreme precipitation events, which result in floods and landslides, are projected to intensify in magnitude and frequency due to climate change, with a 1.5°C increase in mean global temperature projected to result in an increase of up to 200 percent in the population affected by floods in Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina; 300 percent in Ecuador; and 400 percent in Peru. Climate shocks reduce the income of the poorest 40 percent by more than double the average of the LAC population and could push an estimated 2.4–5.8 million people in the region into extreme poverty by 2030. PublicationWorld Bank Group Climate Change Action Plan 2021–2025: Supporting Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Development(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-22) World Bank GroupThe Climate Change Action Plan 2021–2025 aims to advance the climate change aspects of the WBG’s Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Development (GRID) approach, which pursues poverty eradication and shared prosperity with a sustainability lens. In the Action Plan, we will support countries and private sector clients to maximize the impact of climate finance, aiming for measurable improvements in adaptation and resilience and measurable reductions in GHG emissions. The Action Plan also considers the vital importance of natural capital, biodiversity, and ecosystems services and will increase support for nature-based solutions, given their importance for both mitigation and adaptation. As part of our effort to drive climate action, the WBG has a long-standing record of participating in key partnerships and high-level forums aimed at enhancing global efforts to address climate change. The new Action Plan represents a shift from efforts to “green” projects, to greening entire economies, and from focusing on inputs, to focusing on impacts. It focuses on (i) integrating climate and development; (ii) identifying and prioritizing action on the largest mitigation and adaptation opportunities; and (iii) using those to drive our climate finance and leverage private capital in ways that deliver the most results. That means helping the largest emitters flatten the emissions curve and accelerate the downward trend and ramping up financing on adaptation to help countries and private sector clients prepare for and adapt to climate change while pursuing broader development objectives through the GRID approach. PublicationPrimary Health Care Vital Signs Profile Assessment for Colombia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World Bank GroupSince the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed, on March 6, 2020, the Primary Health Care (PHC) system in Colombia has been on trial, displayinga variability in governance capacity across the national territory. The response of the Colombian health system to COVID-19 and the role that PHChas played highlight several of its strengths and weaknesses. Barriers to access to health services related to distance and cost perceived by the Colombian population have steadily decreased since 2010, while barriers corresponding to perceived quality of services have remained relativelyconstant. Although barriers have been reduced and the availability of services has increased in the Health Service Delivery Institutions (HSDI) of the country, aspects related to the quality of care they provide continue to show weaknesses such as in the continuity of care, adherence of providers to clinical guidelines and aspects of patient safety. In the system, inequities of access, quality and coverage of PHC services persist throughout the national territory. To achieve a high-performing PHC system, this report proposes a series of recommendations, including: (a) Implement a new model of care focused on PHC, which offers a comprehensive package of services and reflects the health needs of the population; (b) Prepare the next generation of technicians and health professionals in PHC to work in multidisciplinary teams, and (c) Use PHC as a strategy to reduce inequities in health. PublicationCase Study on the Role of Primary Health Care in the SARS COV-2 Pandemic in Colombia: Initial Phase - Period of 11th of March to May 31st, 2020(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World Bank GroupThe reforms of the Colombian Health System in the last decade have sought to position primary health care (PHC) as an essential strategy to guarantee integrated and comprehensive care of the population’s health needs. The Primary Health Care approach includes three integrated, interdependent components: health services, intersectoriality, and social participation in terms of empowering individuals, families and communities to take charge of their own health. Within this conceptual framework, Colombia has tackled the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic formally announcedby the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. This report examines the role of PHC in Colombia›s preparation for, response to, and recovery from the pandemic. The main features of the pandemic affecting the country are described first, followed by observations stemming from analysis of the regulatory component, the healthcare services delivered, and the role of public health communication and surveillance. The report ends with conclusions on the analysis. PublicationWorld Bank Group Strategy for Fragility, Conflict, and Violence 2020–2025(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-27) World Bank GroupBy 2030, more than half of the world’s extreme poor will live in countries characterized by fragility, conflict, and violence. Preventing and mitigating fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) is central to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the World Bank Group’s (WBG) twin goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. The objective of the FCV Strategy is to enhance the WBG’s effectiveness to support countries in addressing the drivers and impacts of FCV and strengthening their resilience, especially for the most vulnerable and marginalized populations. PublicationBenefit Sharing at Scale: Good Practices for Results-Based Land Use Programs(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11-01) World Bank GroupLand use initiatives that distribute result-based payments for emission reductions need to define transparent and equitable benefit-sharing plans for how these incentives flow to a diverse range of stakeholders. This study synthesizes good practices for benefit sharing in jurisdictional land use programs that make results-based payments for emission reductions. The report draws lessons from large-scale programs and other relevant initiatives that involve benefit sharing focused on forests, land use, natural resources, and climate change. The analysis is designed to support government and program staff in developing and implementing benefit-sharing arrangements for jurisdictional level results-based land use programs, including participant countries of the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL). PublicationHigh-Performance Health Financing for Universal Health Coverage: Driving Sustainable, Inclusive Growth in the 21st Century(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-27) World Bank GroupThe majority of developing countries will fail to achieve their targets for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the health- and poverty-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unless they take urgent steps to strengthen their health financing. The UHC financing agenda fits squarely within the core mission of the G20 to promote sustainable, inclusive growth and to mitigate potential risks to the global economy. Closing the substantial UHC financing gap in 54 low and lower middle-income countries will require a strong mix of domestic and international investment. G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors can help countries seize the opportunities of high-performance health financing by adopting and steering a UHC financing resilience and sustainability agenda.