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    Principles for Public Credit Guarantee Schemes for SMEs
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12) World Bank Group
    Access to finance, particularly credit, is widely recognized as problematic for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), hampering their growth and development. To address this challenge, many governments around the world intervene in SME credit markets through credit guarantee schemes (CGSs). A CGS offers risk mitigation to lenders by taking a share of the lenders’ losses on SME loans in case of default. CGSs can contribute to expand access to finance for SMEs. Yet they may bring limited value added and prove costly if they are not designed and implemented well. There have been efforts in recent years to identify good practices for CGSs, but the international community still lacks a common set of principles or standards that can help governments establish, operate, and evaluate CGSs for SMEs. The Principles for Public Credit Guarantees for SMEs are filling this gap. The Principles provide a generally accepted set of good practices, which can serve as a global reference for the design, execution, and evaluation of public CGSs around the world. The Principles propose appropriate governance and risk management arrangements, as well as operational conduct rules for CGSs, which can lead to improved outreach and additionality along with financial sustainability. Developed through extensive consultations with stakeholders, the Principles draw from both the literature on good practices for CGSs and sound practices implemented by a number of successful CGSs around the world.
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    Costa Rica's Development: From Good to Better
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06-11) Oviedo, Ana Maria ; Sanchez, Susana M. ; Lindert, Kathy A. ; Lopez, J. Humberto
    Costa Rica stands out for being among the most politically stable, progressive, prosperous, and environmentally conscious nations in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its development model has brought important economic, social, and environmental dividends, with sustained growth, upward mobility for a large share of the population, important gains in social indicators, and significant achievements in reforestation and conservation. However, there are a number of development challenges that need to be addressed to maintain the country’s successful development path. This Systematic Country Diagnostic takes stock of the poverty, inequality, and growth trends, addressing the following questions: To what extent has the Costa Rican development model been inclusive? What has driven growth in Costa Rica in recent years, and what are the bottlenecks that need to be addressed? How sustainable is the development model of Costa Rica economically, socially, and environmentally?
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    The Seven Sins of Flawed Public-Private Partnerships
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) de la Torre, Augusto ; Rudolph, Heinz
    There are three stakeholders in a public-private partnership (PPP), (a) the government in office, (b) private firms (financial and non-financial) and investors (individual and institutional), and (c) final beneficiaries (taxpayers or users, present and future). The raison detre of PPPs is threefold: (i) to crowd in private firms and investors into projects that they will otherwise not undertake; (ii) to transfer to the private sector a significant part of the risks and costs that the government would otherwise fully absorb; and (iii) to ensure that the projects efficiency/quality is at least equal to that obtained if the government alone carried all costs and risks. Important (yet often ignored) implications follow. First, outsourcing (e.g., construction and maintenance) to the private sector does not by itself constitute a PPP if all risks and costs are, in one way or another, still borne by the government. Second, a PPP does not reduce total risk; it simply distributes it differently, involving private sector firms and investors. Third, the total costs borne by the final beneficiaries would be lower under a PPP (compared to a project whose costs and risks rest completely in the governments balance sheet) only if the PPP achieves efficiency gains; otherwise, what beneficiaries save in taxes they will pay in user fees, although, under a PPP, more of the costs would be assigned to direct beneficiaries/users, than to taxpayers at large. Fourth, that a PPP can provide (cash) budget relief may be a welcome corollary for the government in office but it is not a core objective of a PPP.
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    Ecuador : The Faces of Informality (Las Caras de La Informalidad)
    (Washington, DC, 2012) World Bank
    Informality hampers economic performance at both macro and micro levels. High degree of informality and low economic growth tend to go hand-in-hand, although evidence shows that the relationship likely comes from common determinants of both. Informality in Ecuador remains high compared to other countries. This study offers a novel look at informality in Ecuador by directly asking firm owners and workers about their views and behavior. The analysis of the causes and costs of informality for firms in Ecuador in this study is based on data from a 2011 enterprise survey commissioned specifically for this study and complemented by focus groups and in-depth interviews. The survey captures the aspects of the regulatory framework which are most problematic for compliance, and the specific reasons for non-compliance. The study focuses on micro and small firms in the urban areas of Ecuador. The sectors of activity, geographic locations, and sizes of firms covered by this study were agreed upon with the Government during the initial consultations on the report. The study finds that many micro and small firms in Ecuador have limited growth potential, due to low entrepreneurial ability and lack of access to and poor quality of credit.
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    Does What You Export Matter? In Search of Empirical Guidance for Industrial Policies
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012) Lederman, Daniel ; Maloney, William F.
    Does the content of what economies export matter for development? And, if it does, can governments improve on the export basket that the market generates through the shaping of industrial policy? This book considers these questions by reviewing relevant literature and taking stock of what is known from conceptual, empirical, and policy viewpoints. A large literature answers affirmatively to the first question and suggests the characteristics that distinguish desirable exports. More prosaically, but no less controversially, goods which are intensive in unskilled labor are thought to promote 'pro-poor' or 'shared growth,' whereas those which are skilled-labor intensive are thought to generate positive externalities for society as a whole. Concerns about macroeconomic stability have led to a focus on the overall composition of the export basket. This book revisits many of these arguments conceptually and, wherever possible, imports heuristic approaches into frameworks where, as more familiar arguments, they can be held up to the light, rotated, and their facets examined for brilliance or flaws. Second, the book examines what emerges empirically as a basis for policy design. Specifically, given certain conceptual arguments in favor of public sector intervention, do available data and empirical methods allow for actually doing so with a high degree of confidence? In asking this question, the book assumes that policy makers are competent and seek to raise the welfare of their citizens. This assumption permits sidestepping the debate about whether government failures trump market failures generically: In this sense, the book attempts to 'give industrial policy a chance.'
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    Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean : The Road Ahead
    (World Bank, 2012) de la Torre, Augusto ; Ize, Alain ; Schmukler, Sergio L.
    The financial systems of the Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC) are at a crucial juncture. After a history of recurrent instability and crisis (a trademark of the region), they now seem well poised for rapid expansion. Since the last wave of financial crises that swept through the region in the late 1990s and early 2000s, financial systems in LAC have continued to gain in soundness, depth, and diversity. The size of banking systems has increased, albeit from a low base; local currency bond markets have greatly developed, both in volumes and in reach over the yield curve; stock markets have expanded; and derivative markets particularly currency derivatives have grown and multiplied. Institutional investors have become more important relative to banks, making the financial system more complex and diversified. Importantly, much progress has been made in financial inclusion, particularly through the expansion of payments, savings, and credit services to lower income households and microenterprises. As evidence of their new soundness and resiliency, financial systems in the region, except in some Caribbean countries, weathered the recent global financial crisis remarkably well. The progress in financial development in LAC no doubt reflects substantial improvements in the enabling environment, lower macroeconomic volatility, more independent and better-anchored currencies, increased financial liberalization, lower currency mismatches and foreign debt exposures, enhanced effectiveness of regulation and supervision, and notable improvements in the underlying market infrastructures (for example, trading, payments, custody, clearing, and settlement). This regional flagship report aims at providing such a stocktaking and forward looking assessment of the region's financial development. Rather than going into detail about sector-specific issues, the report focuses on the main architectural issues, overall perspectives, and interconnections. The value added of the report thus hinges on its holistic view of the development process, its broad coverage of the financial services industry (not just banking), its emphasis on benchmarking, its systemic perspective, and its explicit effort to incorporate the lessons from the recent global financial crisis.
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    Managing Risk and Creating Value with Microfinance
    (World Bank, 2010) Goldberg, Mike ; Palladini, Eric
    This report brings together the results of an eight-part series of presentations by leading experts in issues directly related to microfinance institutional sustainability. It is intended for microfinance institution (MFI) board members, managers, and staff members as well as for government regulators, supervisors, and donor staff members. The first four chapters include topics in risk management: (1) risk management systems, (2) good governance, (3) interest rates, and (4) micro-insurance. The last four chapters include four topics in new product development and efficient delivery methodologies: (5) housing microfinance, (6) micro-leasing, (7) disaster preparedness products and systems, and (8) new technologies. The objectives of the series were as follows: i) to strengthen MFIs by disseminating innovative approaches in risk management, cost control, governance, and new technologies; ii) to promote a South-South exchange of experiences and lessons learned; iii) to promote greater ties among the MFIs in the region and between MFIs and government supervisors and regulators; and iv) to highlight the Bank's ability to mobilize international technical expertise in microfinance.
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    Analyzing Banking Risk : A Framework for Assessing Corporate Governance and Risk Management, Third Edition
    (World Bank, 2009-04-01) Van Greuning, Hennie ; Brajovic Bratanovic, Sonja
    This publication aims to complement existing methodologies by establishing a comprehensive framework for the assessment of banks, not only by using financial data, but also by considering corporate governance. It argues that each of the key players in the corporate governance process (such as shareholders, directors, executive managers, and internal and external auditors) is responsible for some component of financial and operational risk management. Following a holistic overview of bank analysis in chapter two, the importance of banking supervision in the context of corporate governance is discussed in chapter three. This chapter also considers the partnership approach and the emerging framework for corporate governance and risk management, as well as the identification and allocation of tasks as part of the risk management process. The framework for risk management is further discussed in chapters four through eleven.
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    Debt Management Performance Assessment Tool
    (Washington, DC, 2008-02-05) World Bank
    The World Bank is developing a program to assist developing countries improve debt management in collaboration with other partners. The objective of the program is to help strengthen capacity and institutions in developing countries to manage government debt in an effective and sustainable manner in the medium to long term. A cornerstone of the program is the Debt Management Performance Assessment Tool (DeMPA), a methodology for assessing performance through a comprehensive set of performance indicators spanning the full range of government debt management (DeM) functions. The intention is that the indicator set will be an internationally recognized standard in the government debt management field and may be applied in all developing countries. The DeMPA highlights strengths and weaknesses in government DeM practices in each country. Performance assessment facilitates the design of plans to build and augment capacity and institutions tailored to the specific needs of a country. The debt management performance report will not, however, contain specific recommendations or make assumptions as to the potential impact of ongoing reforms on government DeM performance. The DeMPA also facilitates the monitoring of progress over time in achieving the objectives of government DeM consistent with international sound practice. [Revised November 2008]
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    The State of State Reform in Latin America
    (Palo Alto, CA : Stanford University Press, 2007) Lora, Eduardo
    This book examines four major areas of institutional reform: a) political institutions and the state organization; b) fiscal institutions, such as budget, tax and decentralization institutions; c) public institutions in charge of sectoral economic policies (financial, industrial, and infrastructure); and d) social sector institutions (pensions, social protection, and education). In each of these areas, the authors summarize the reform objectives, describe and measure their scope, assess the main outcomes, and identify the obstacles for implementation, especially those of an institutional nature.