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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02) Vijil, MarianaSi bien ocho de cada diez asalariados trabajan en el sector privado, el sector público constituyó la principal fuente de creación neta de empleo en Ecuador durante la última década. Las presiones fiscales hoy en día invitan al sector privado a jugar un rol más destacado. En una economía dolarizada, la competitividad del sector privado depende de ganancias en productividad; y la evidencia para Ecuador demuestra que dichas ganancias pueden ir de la mano con un aumento del empleo agregado en el país. Sin embargo, el crecimiento de la productividad en Ecuador sigue estancado. Las empresas jóvenes, que constituyen el motor de la creación neta de empleo del sector privado, enfrentan obstáculos para crecer. Impedimentos proprios a la empresa o a la finca, así como medidas del clima de negocios que afectan la asignación eficiente del capital, constituyen los principales obstáculos. Reforzar la resiliencia de las empres jóvenes, eliminar los obstáculos al acceso a crédito para capital de trabajo, atraer inversión extranjera directa y fomentar participación en cadenas internacionales de valor, así como mejorar la competitividad de la agricultura constituyen prioridades para reforzar la capacidad del sector privado a impulsar la demanda laboral a largo plazo.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-08-28) Freire, German ; Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina ; Schwartz Orellana, Steven ; Soler Lopez, Jorge ; Carbonari, FlaviaAbout one in four Latin Americans self-identify as Afro-descendants today. They comprise a highly heterogeneous population and are unevenly distributed across the region, but share a common history of displacement and exclusion. Despite significant gains over the past decade, Afro-descendants still are overrepresented among the poor and are underrepresented in decision-making positions, both in the private and the public sector. The extent to which Latin America will be able to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity will therefore depend, to a very large degree, on the social inclusion of Afro-descendants. The objective of this study is to deepen the region's empirical understanding of the drivers behind the persistent exclusion of the afro-descendants, as a first step to design appropriate solutions. The report proposes a framework to organize and think of the myriad options available to address their situations, based on the experience accumulated by the region and the data available.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2012) World BankInformality hampers economic performance at both macro and micro levels. High degree of informality and low economic growth tend to go hand-in-hand, although evidence shows that the relationship likely comes from common determinants of both. Informality in Ecuador remains high compared to other countries. This study offers a novel look at informality in Ecuador by directly asking firm owners and workers about their views and behavior. The analysis of the causes and costs of informality for firms in Ecuador in this study is based on data from a 2011 enterprise survey commissioned specifically for this study and complemented by focus groups and in-depth interviews. The survey captures the aspects of the regulatory framework which are most problematic for compliance, and the specific reasons for non-compliance. The study focuses on micro and small firms in the urban areas of Ecuador. The sectors of activity, geographic locations, and sizes of firms covered by this study were agreed upon with the Government during the initial consultations on the report. The study finds that many micro and small firms in Ecuador have limited growth potential, due to low entrepreneurial ability and lack of access to and poor quality of credit.
Publication(Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank, 2010) Nopo, Hugo ; Chong, Alberto ; Moro, Andrea ; Nopo, Hugo ; Chong, Alberto ; Moro, AndreaThe chapters presented in this volume adopt a variety of these methodological tools in order to explore the extent to which discrimination against women and demographic minorities is pervasive in Latin America. In chapter two, Castillo, Petrie, and Torero present a series of experiments to understand the nature of discrimination in urban Lima, Peru. They design and apply experiments that exploit degrees of information on performance as a way to assess how personal characteristics affect how people sort into groups. Along similar lines, in chapter three, Cardenas and his research team use an experimental field approach in Colombia to better understand pro-social preferences and behavior of both individuals involved in the provision of social services (public servants) and potential beneficiaries of those services (the poor). In chapter four, Elias, Elias, and Ronconi try to understand social status and race during adolescence in Argentina. They asked high school students to select and rank ten classmates with whom they would like to form a team and use this information to construct a measure of popularity. In chapters five and six, Bravo, Sanhueza, and Urzua present two studies covering different aspects of the labor market using different methodological tools. Based on an audit study by mail, their first study attempts to detect gender, social class, and neighborhood of residence discrimination in hiring practices by Chilean fir. In a second study, they use a structural model to analyze gender differences in the Chilean labor market. In chapter seven, Soruco, Piani, and Rossi measure and analyze possible discriminatory behaviors against international emigrants and their families remaining in southern Ecuador (the city of Cuenca and the rural canton of San Fernando). Finally, in chapter eight, Gandelman, Gandelman, and Rothschild use micro data on judicial proceedings in Uruguay and present evidence that female defendants receive a more favorable treatment in courts than male defendants.