Spanish PDFs Available

359 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

The following titles are also available in Spanish. Click on the title link and look toward the bottom of the page to locate the PDFs that can be downloaded for that title.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 251
  • Publication
    Challenges and Opportunities of the Economic Integration of the Venezuelan Population in the Peruvian Labor Market
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-08) World Bank
    This study demonstrates that although Venezuelans are more educated relative to Peruvians and most of them have successfully entered the Peruvian labor market, they are mostly employed in low-quality jobs and with a degree of skills mismatch. Most of them are overqualified and have transitioned to more elementary occupations. Furthermore, four out of five Venezuelan workers are employed informally and their returns to higher education are lower than those perceived by Peruvians despite working more hours per week. In addition, we find that they have a significant participation in the digital economy, mainly in delivery platforms, and that two-thirds of Venezuelan workers send remittances abroad. Finally, the report concludes that whether refugees and migrants have the right to work at the level of his or her qualifications and capabilities depends on: (i) the regulatory process to validate their educational degrees, (ii) the migration policy and status, and (iii) the local attitudes towards Venezuelan migration.
  • Publication
    Women, Business and the Law 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-04) World Bank
    Women, Business and the Law 2024 is the 10th in a series of annual studies measuring the enabling conditions that affect women’s economic opportunity in 190 economies. To present a more complete picture of the global environment that enables women’s socioeconomic participation, this year Women, Business and the Law introduces two new indicators—Safety and Childcare—and presents findings on the implementation gap between laws (de jure) and how they function in practice (de facto). This study presents three indexes: (1) legal frameworks, (2) supportive frameworks (policies, institutions, services, data, budget, and access to justice), and (3) expert opinions on women’s rights in practice in the areas measured. The study’s 10 indicators—Safety, Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Childcare, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension—are structured around the different stages of a woman’s working life. Findings from this new research can inform policy discussions to ensure women’s full and equal participation in the economy. The indicators build evidence of the critical relationship between legal gender equality and women’s employment and entrepreneurship. Data in Women, Business and the Law 2024 are current as of October 1, 2023.
  • Publication
    The Evolving Geography of Productivity and Employment: Ideas for Inclusive Growth through a Territorial Lens in Latin America and the Caribbean
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-25) Ianchovichina, Elena
    The Evolving Geography of Productivity and Employment: Ideas for Inclusive Growth through a Territorial Lens in Latin America and the Caribbean employs a territorial lens to understand the persistently low economic growth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Using new data and methods, it shows that deindustrialization, distance, and divisions offer intertwined explanations for an urban productivity paradox in the LAC region: its highly dense cities should be among the world’s most productive, yet they are not. LAC cities have been held back by lack of dynamism, poor connectivity, and divisions into disconnected poor and affluent neighborhoods. Deindustrialization has shifted urban employment, especially in the largest LAC cities, away from manufacturing and toward less dynamic, low-productivity nontradable activities, such as retail trade and personal and other services, that profit less from agglomeration, especially in highly congested cities. Although employment in urban tradable services has risen, the increase has not been strong enough to offset the decline in manufacturing employment. Meanwhile, intercity connectivity issues have undermined the performance of the region’s network of cities by restricting market access and firms’ ability to benefit from specialization in smaller cities. Within cities, poor connectivity and residential labor market segregation have limited the gains from agglomeration to neighborhoods in central business districts where formal firms operate. Informality has persisted in low-income neighborhoods, where residents face multiple deprivations. By contrast, many agricultural and mining areas have benefited from the strong demand for commodities by China and other fast-growing economies, particularly during the Golden Decade (2003–13), leading to a decline in territorial inequality in most countries in the region. The report concludes that to encourage inclusive growth, countries must more efficiently transform natural wealth into human capital, infrastructure, and institutions and improve the competitiveness of the urban economy. It then sketches out the contours of such a development strategy, identifying policy priorities at the national, regional, and local levels.
  • Publication
    Dominican Republic Gender Assessment
    (Washington, DC, 2024-01-17) World Bank
    Achieving inclusive growth and maximizing poverty reduction in the Dominican Republic requires closing existing gender gaps: from early childhood to working age, and further still into old age. Using a lifecycle approach, this gender Assessment attempts to uncover, better understand, and deliver some policy recommendations for the main challenges in this area, with a focus on the three main dimensions of endowments, economic opportunity, and agency.
  • Publication
    Poverty and Distributional Impact of Fiscal Policy in Dominican Republic
    (Washington, DC, 2023-11-28) World Bank
    This report assesses the impact of fiscal policy, both revenue and expenditure, on inequality and poverty in the Dominican Republic. On the revenue side, the analysis focuses on the personal income tax, the value added tax (tax on the transfer of industrialized goods and services, known as ITBIS in the Dominican Republic for its initials in Spanish) and excise taxes on alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, fuel products and telecommunication services. These taxes combined accounted for 7.8 percent of GDP in 2018, equivalent to 60 percent of total tax revenues. On the expenditure side, the analysis focuses on social protection benefits like direct cash and near-cash transfers (e.g., the school food-program and the school uniforms and supplies program), indirect subsidies (energy, water, and public transport), and in-kind benefits on education and health, which together account for 39.2 percent of total government expenditures and 85.9 percent of social expenditures. The remainder of this report is organized as follows: Section II describes the Dominican Republic’s tax systems and government spending in 2018 and compares them with those of selected Latin American countries. Section III includes a description of the data, methodology and assumptions made in carrying out the analysis in this report. The main results are provided in Section IV, starting with fiscal policy’s net impact on inequality, followed by its impact on poverty incidence. A comparison with other countries is then provided. Section IV also includes a detailed analysis of the distributional impact of taxes, social spending, and subsidies, to demonstrate their impact on the welfare of the poor. The report’s main conclusions are presented in Section V.
  • Publication
    Lessons Learned through the Health Program for Results in Costa Rica
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-24) Mussini, Micaela; Lara, Ana Maria; Rosado Valenzuela, Ana Lucia; Sheffel, Ashley; Di Giorgio, Laura
    Costa Rica was one of the first countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to choose the World Bank Program for Results (PforR) financing instrument to support the implementation of the Strategic Agenda for Strengthening Health Insurance by the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), for its name in Spanish, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social). The PforR’s unique features include using a country’s own institutions and processes and linking disbursement of funds directly to the achievement of specific program results, which helps building capacity within the country, enhances effectiveness and efficiency and leads to achievement of tangible, sustainable program results. The CCSS is the primary provider of health care in the country. The PforR “Strengthening Universal Health Insurance in Costa Rica" was approved by the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors in 2016, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of the universal health insurance system while boosting the institutional efficiency of the CCSS. Through the PforR, the CCSS successfully undertook strategic and complex health sector reforms that have had significant impact on quality of care, equity, and efficiency in Costa Rica’s health sector. This series of knowledge reports, developed by the World Bank in collaboration with the CCSS, aims to document the drivers of success, how challenges were faced, and crucial lessons learned during the design and implementation of the PforR and its associated transformative reforms. The overarching objective is to provide a practical guide for other countries interested in implementing similar programs.
  • Publication
    The Integrated Family Record System (SIFF), a Key Tool for Monitoring the Social Determinants of Health in Costa Rica
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-24) Rosado Valenzuela, Ana Lucia; Sheffel, Ashley; Mussini, Micaela; Lara Salinas, Ana Maria; Di Giorgio, Laura
    Costa Rica was one of the first countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to choose the World Bank Program for Results (PforR) financing instrument to support the implementation of the Strategic Agenda for Strengthening Health Insurance by the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), for its name in Spanish, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social). The PforR’s unique features include using a country’s own institutions and processes and linking disbursement of funds directly to the achievement of specific program results, which helps building capacity within the country, enhances effectiveness and efficiency and leads to achievement of tangible, sustainable program results. The CCSS is the primary provider of health care in the country. The PforR “Strengthening Universal Health Insurance in Costa Rica" was approved by the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors in 2016, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of the universal health insurance system while boosting the institutional efficiency of the CCSS. Through the PforR, the CCSS successfully undertook strategic and complex health sector reforms that have had significant impact on quality of care, equity, and efficiency in Costa Rica’s health sector. This series of knowledge reports, developed by the World Bank in collaboration with the CCSS, aims to document the drivers of success, how challenges were faced, and crucial lessons learned during the design and implementation of the PforR and its associated transformative reforms. The overarching objective is to provide a practical guide for other countries interested in implementing similar programs.
  • Publication
    Expansion of the Coverage of the Single Digital Health Record (EDUS) in the PHC System in Costa Rica
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-24) Rosado Valenzuela, Ana Lucia; Sheffel, Ashley; Lara, Ana Maria; Mussini, Micaela; Di Giorgio, Laura
    Costa Rica was one of the first countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to choose the World Bank Program for Results (PforR) financing instrument to support the implementation of the Strategic Agenda for Strengthening Health Insurance by the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), for its name in Spanish, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social). The PforR’s unique features include using a country’s own institutions and processes and linking disbursement of funds directly to the achievement of specific program results, which helps building capacity within the country, enhances effectiveness and efficiency and leads to achievement of tangible, sustainable program results. The CCSS is the primary provider of health care in the country. The PforR “Strengthening Universal Health Insurance in Costa Rica" was approved by the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors in 2016, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of the universal health insurance system while boosting the institutional efficiency of the CCSS. Through the PforR, the CCSS successfully undertook strategic and complex health sector reforms that have had significant impact on quality of care, equity, and efficiency in Costa Rica’s health sector. This series of knowledge reports, developed by the World Bank in collaboration with the CCSS, aims to document the drivers of success, how challenges were faced, and crucial lessons learned during the design and implementation of the PforR and its associated transformative reforms. The overarching objective is to provide a practical guide for other countries interested in implementing similar programs.
  • Publication
    The Use of Satisfaction Surveys to Improve the Delivery of Health Services to the Population in Costa Rica
    (World Bank, Washington DC, 2023-10-23) Rosado Valenzuela, Ana Lucia; Sheffel, Ashley; Mussini, Micaela; Lara Salinas, Ana Maria; Di Giorgio, Laura
    Costa Rica was one of the first countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to choose the World Bank Program for Results (PforR) financing instrument to support the implementation of the Strategic Agenda for Strengthening Health Insurance by the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), for its name in Spanish, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social). The PforR’s unique features include using a country’s own institutions and processes and linking disbursement of funds directly to the achievement of specific program results, which helps building capacity within the country, enhances effectiveness and efficiency and leads to achievement of tangible, sustainable program results. The CCSS is the primary provider of health care in the country. The PforR “Strengthening Universal Health Insurance in Costa Rica" was approved by the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors in 2016, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of the universal health insurance system while boosting the institutional efficiency of the CCSS. Through the PforR, the CCSS successfully undertook strategic and complex health sector reforms that have had significant impact on quality of care, equity, and efficiency in Costa Rica’s health sector. This series of knowledge reports, developed by the World Bank in collaboration with the CCSS, aims to document the drivers of success, how challenges were faced, and crucial lessons learned during the design and implementation of the PforR and its associated transformative reforms. The overarching objective is to provide a practical guide for other countries interested in implementing similar programs.
  • Publication
    Increasing the Number of Major Outpatient Surgeries to Reduce the Waiting List in Costa Rica
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-23) Rosado Valenzuela, Ana Lucia; Sheffel, Ashley; Mussini, Micaela; Lara Salinas, Ana Maria; Di Giorgio, Laura
    Costa Rica was one of the first countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to choose the World Bank Program for Results (PforR) financing instrument to support the implementation of the Strategic Agenda for Strengthening Health Insurance by the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), for its name in Spanish, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social). The PforR’s unique features include using a country’s own institutions and processes and linking disbursement of funds directly to the achievement of specific program results, which helps building capacity within the country, enhances effectiveness and efficiency and leads to achievement of tangible, sustainable program results. The CCSS is the primary provider of health care in the country. The PforR “Strengthening Universal Health Insurance in Costa Rica" was approved by the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors in 2016, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of the universal health insurance system while boosting the institutional efficiency of the CCSS. Through the PforR, the CCSS successfully undertook strategic and complex health sector reforms that have had significant impact on quality of care, equity, and efficiency in Costa Rica’s health sector. This series of knowledge reports, developed by the World Bank in collaboration with the CCSS, aims to document the drivers of success, how challenges were faced, and crucial lessons learned during the design and implementation of the PforR and its associated transformative reforms. The overarching objective is to provide a practical guide for other countries interested in implementing similar programs.