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PublicationTokyo Start-Up Ecosystem(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09-01) Mulas, Victor; Astudillo, Pablo; Riku, Takashi; Wyne, Jamil; Zhang, XinThis report analyzes the start-up ecosystem in Tokyo and the greater surrounding area in Japan in the transition of the innovation model to a hybrid of traditional public sector-university-corporation research and development (R and D) combined with start-up agile innovation. It first introduces the role of a start-up ecosystem in contributing to the development of global cities, and thus to the wider national economy. It then takes a country-level view of Japan’s innovation system, within which the metropolitan region operates, in the transition to the innovation-start-up ecosystem. This description is followed by an analysis of the specifics of the Tokyo start-up ecosystem - which consists of investment, support infrastructure, and skills infrastructure - factors that merit close inspection and deep analytics. And finally, the report ends with conclusions - what can be done better or differently to exploit opportunities within Tokyo - but also wider lessons for other global cities. PublicationWorld Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020) World BankGlobal value chains (GVCs) powered the surge of international trade after 1990 and now account for almost half of all trade. This shift enabled an unprecedented economic convergence: poor countries grew rapidly and began to catch up with richer countries. Since the 2008 global financial crisis, however, the growth of trade has been sluggish and the expansion of GVCs has stalled. Meanwhile, serious threats have emerged to the model of trade-led growth. New technologies could draw production closer to the consumer and reduce the demand for labor. And conflicts among large countries could lead to a retrenchment or a segmentation of GVCs. This book examines whether there is still a path to development through GVCs and trade. It concludes that technological change is, at this stage, more a boon than a curse. GVCs can continue to boost growth, create better jobs, and reduce poverty provided that developing countries implement deeper reforms to promote GVC participation; industrial countries pursue open, predictable policies; and all countries revive multilateral cooperation. PublicationRemarks from World Bank Group President David Malpass at the G20 Leaders Summit(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-29) Malpass, DavidThese remarks were delivered by David Malpass, President of the World Bank Group, at the G20 Leaders Summit held in Osaka, Japan. He spoke about how giving women better access to economic opportunities is critical to eliminate differences in living standards between men and women. He highlighted We-Fi which is so important and how the Bank was proud to celebrate its two-year anniversary in Osaka. He spoke about the developing countries and the Bank's role in actively identifying changes in the private sector environment that will attract investment and enable higher living standards and better lives. He explained the Bank's work in fragile states, such as the Sahel and the Horn of Africa, to help countries build stronger foundations so that young people are more able to stay rather than seeking to immigrate. He discussed reducing inequality and realizing inclusive and sustainable growth around the world, and how addressing these requires jobs, education, healthcare, attention to the environment, and robust commerce and trade among neighbors and nations. He concluded by saying that the Bank would continue to work with all the nations on these challenges. PublicationWorld Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2016-01-13) World Bank GroupThe 2016 World Development Report shows that while the digital revolution has forged ahead, its “analog complements”—the regulations that promote entry and competition, the skills that enable workers to access and then leverage the new economy, and the institutions that are accountable to citizens—have not kept pace. And when these analog complements to digital investments are absent, the development impact can be disappointing. PublicationMIGA Annual Report 2014 : Insuring Investments, Ensuring Opportunities(Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014) Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyIn 2014, the World Bank Group adopted a joint strategy for dealing with impediments to ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. One of the strategy’s key elements underscores the essential role private sector investment can play working alongside public sector support to bear down on the most challenging development issues client countries face, such as job creation, infrastructure deficits, and climate change. MIGA’s role has become increasingly valuable in delivering results to achieve these twin goals as demonstrated by the increased demand for our political risk insurance and credit enhancement products that facilitate the expansion of private investment into emerging markets. In fiscal year 2014, MIGA issued a record $3.2 billion in new guarantees while our gross exposure reached $12.4 billion. MIGA’s added value stems from our ability to mobilize private sector investment in environments that are often beyond the risk tolerance of commercial sources of capital. This past fiscal year, MIGA worked with various stakeholders to develop our own strategy that aligns our objectives with the World Bank Group’s twin goals and underscores our aspiration to achieve significant development impact beyond what we can do alone. To achieve this, MIGA will need to be financially sustainable by prudently managing our risks, covering operating costs, and creating financial latitude by growing the Agency’s capital base. PublicationMIGA Annual Report 2013 : Insuring Investments, Ensuring Opportunities(Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2013-10-11) Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyIn fiscal year 2013, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) issued 2.8 billion dollars in investment guarantees for projects in our developing member countries. At 1.5 billion dollars, representing more than half of new business, the bulk of MIGA's guarantees issued support investments in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty-nine percent of new business volume this year was in complex projects in infrastructure and extractive industries, a strategic priority for the Agency. This year, 82 percent of MIGA's new volume fell into one or more of strategic priority areas: investments in the world's poorest countries, "South-South" investments, investments in conflict-affected countries, and investments in complex projects. MIGA also established the conflict-affected and fragile economies facility to further deepen support to this priority area. PublicationWorld Development Report 2014: Risk and Opportunity—Managing Risk for Development(Washington, DC, 2013-10-06) World BankThe past 25 years have witnessed unprecedented changes around the world—many of them for the better. Across the continents, many countries have embarked on a path of international integration, economic reform, technological modernization, and democratic participation. As a result, economies that had been stagnant for decades are growing, people whose families had suffered deprivation for generations are escaping poverty, and hundreds of millions are enjoying the benefits of improved living standards and scientific and cultural sharing across nations. As the world changes, a host of opportunities arise constantly. With them, however, appear old and new risks, from the possibility of job loss and disease to the potential for social unrest and environmental damage. If ignored, these risks can turn into crises that reverse hard-won gains and endanger the social and economic reforms that produced these gains. The World Development Report 2014 (WDR 2014), Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risk for Development, contends that the solution is not to reject change in order to avoid risk but to prepare for the opportunities and risks that change entails. Managing risks responsibly and effectively has the potential to bring about security and a means of progress for people in developing countries and beyond. Although individuals’ own efforts, initiative, and responsibility are essential for managing risk, their success will be limited without a supportive social environment—especially when risks are large or systemic in nature. The WDR 2014 argues that people can successfully confront risks that are beyond their means by sharing their risk management with others. This can be done through naturally occurring social and economic systems that enable people to overcome the obstacles that individuals and groups face, including lack of resources and information, cognitive and behavioral failures, missing markets and public goods, and social externalities and exclusion. These systems—from the household and the community to the state and the international community—have the potential to support people’s risk management in different yet complementary ways. The Report focuses on some of the most pressing questions policy makers are asking. What role should the state take in helping people manage risks? When should this role consist of direct interventions, and when should it consist of providing an enabling environment? How can governments improve their own risk management, and what happens when they fail or lack capacity, as in many fragile and conflict-affected states? Through what mechanisms can risk management be mainstreamed into the development agenda? And how can collective action failures to manage systemic risks be addressed, especially those with irreversible consequences? The WDR 2014 provides policy makers with insights and recommendations to address these difficult questions. It should serve to guide the dialogue, operations, and contributions from key development actors—from civil society and national governments to the donor community and international development organizations. PublicationThe World Bank Annual Report 2012: Volume 1. Main Report(Washington, DC, 2012-10-05) World BankThe 2012 annual report of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) contains messages from both outgoing President Robert B. Zoellick and incoming President Dr. Jim Yong Kim. The Board of Directors statement highlights the Bank's achievements in 2012. The report showcases the Corporate Scorecard, presented in four tiers, providing information on the Bank's overall performance and results. Tier I provides the global development context. Tier II includes aggregate data collected through the standardized sector indicators. Tier III shows the overall success of Bank activities in achieving their development goals, as well as the Bank's operations effectiveness. Tier IV presents the Bank's organizational effectiveness and modernization. The report also discusses the financial commitments and resources, an operational summary, and World Bank lending by theme and sector for 2007-2012. Additional information on activities and outcomes is available in the annexes. PublicationWorld Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development(World Bank, 2011) World BankThe 2011 World development report looks across disciplines and experiences drawn from around the world to offer some ideas and practical recommendations on how to move beyond conflict and fragility and secure development. The key messages are important for all countries-low, middle, and high income-as well as for regional and global institutions: first, institutional legitimacy is the key to stability. When state institutions do not adequately protect citizens, guard against corruption, or provide access to justice; when markets do not provide job opportunities; or when communities have lost social cohesion-the likelihood of violent conflict increases. Second, investing in citizen security, justice, and jobs is essential to reducing violence. But there are major structural gaps in our collective capabilities to support these areas. Third, confronting this challenge effectively means that institutions need to change. International agencies and partners from other countries must adapt procedures so they can respond with agility and speed, a longer-term perspective, and greater staying power. Fourth, need to adopt a layered approach. Some problems can be addressed at the country level, but others need to be addressed at a regional level, such as developing markets that integrate insecure areas and pooling resources for building capacity Fifth, in adopting these approaches, need to be aware that the global landscape is changing. Regional institutions and middle income countries are playing a larger role. This means should pay more attention to south-south and south-north exchanges, and to the recent transition experiences of middle income countries. PublicationTwo Dragon Heads : Contrasting Development Paths for Beijing and Shanghai(World Bank, 2010) Yusuf, Shahid; Nabeshima, KaoruIn broad terms, the sources of economic growth are well understood, but relatively few countries have succeeded in effectively harnessing this knowledge for policy purposes so as to sustain high rates of growth over an extended period of time. Among the ones that have done so, China stands out. Its gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, which averaged almost 10 percent between 1978 and 2008, is unmatched. Even more remarkable is the performance of China's three leading industrial regions: the Bohai region, the Pearl River Delta, and the Yangtze River (Changjiang) delta area. These regions have averaged growth rates well above 11 percent since 1985. Shanghai is the urban axis of the Yangtze River Delta's thriving economy; Beijing is the hinge of the Bohai region. Their performance and that of a handful of other urban regions will determine China's economic fortunes and innovativeness in the coming decades. The balance of this volume is divided into five chapters. Chapter two encapsulates the sources of China's growth and the current and future role of urban regions in China. The case for the continuing substantial presence of manufacturing industry for growth and innovation in the two urban centers is made in chapter three. Chapter four briefly examines the economic transformation of four global cities and distills stylized trends that can inform future development in Beijing and Shanghai. Chapter five describes the industrial structure of the two cities, identifies promising industrial areas, and analyzes the resource base that would underpin growth fueled by innovation. Finally, chapter six suggests how strategy could be reoriented on the basis of the lessons delineated in chapter four and the economic capabilities presented in chapter five.