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PublicationBuilding a Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-03-29) Malpass, DavidWorld Bank Group President David Malpass acknowledged the importance of the United Kingdom within the World Bank Group. He spoke about the Coronavirus (COVID-19) which descended on the poor like wildfire. He highlighted the Bank's approach to the interlinked crises of green, resilient, inclusive development (GRID). The World Bank is working to help countries build “Country Platforms” to engage with wider groups of development actors as they develop the programs with Bank support. He focused on three of the most pressing challenges of climate, debt, and inequality. There is a need for integrated, long-run strategies that emphasize green, resilient, and inclusive development. He concluded we can generate a recovery that ensures a broad and lasting rise in prosperity especially for the poorest and most marginalized. PublicationWorld Bank Outlook 2050 Strategic Directions Note: Supporting Countries to Meet Long-Term Goals of Decarbonization(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-24) Mukhi, Neha; Rana, Suneira; Mills-Knapp, Sara; Gessesse, EskedarOutlook 2050 examines how the World Bank can help countries plan for and achieve long-term decarbonization: through country programs, technical assistance, lending, and knowledge products. It identifies key trends in technology, markets, financing instruments, and consumer priorities, and examines their implications for climate action, economic growth strategies and development. Supporting countries in a transition to long-term decarbonization requires the World Bank to not only look 3–5 years ahead, roughly equivalent to typical election cycles, but look decades ahead, and then work with our clients to determine the near- and mid-term implications. It will also mean supporting the implementation of economy-wide strategies as well as cross-sectoral initiatives, not only focusing on single-sector initiatives, such as individual energy or transportation projects. Coinciding with a need for a major, global economic recovery – triggered by the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic – this ‘whole of economy' approach to deliver better growth and a better climate could provide the sustainable and resilient foundation for countries as they build – or rebuild – their economies. The Outlook 2050 approach prioritizes four economy-wide strategic directions: 1. Embed long-term climate priorities in country macroeconomic frameworks, to ensure that those frameworks, which guide fiscal policy and major national investments, properly account for climate risks and the benefits of ambitious climate action. 2. Embed long-term climate planning in national budgets and expenditure frameworks, to provide adequate budgetary support for climate action, optimize the overall allocation of public resources, and unlock private financial flows. 3. Embed long-term climate objectives in financial sector regulations and incentives, to ensure that the sector is resilient both to climate change impacts and to low-carbon transition risks, and to mobilize finance for climate action. 4. Embed long-term climate objectives in systems planning, to integrate climate with economic, social inclusion, and other objectives; assess cross-sectoral links and regional impacts; and identify trade-offs and synergies. PublicationLifelines: The Resilient Infrastructure Opportunity(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019-06-19) Hallegatte, Stephane; Rentschler, Jun; Rozenberg, JulieFrom serving our most basic needs to enabling our most ambitious ventures in trade and technology, infrastructure services are essential for raising and maintaining people’s quality of life. Yet millions of people, especially in low- and middle-income countries, are facing the consequences of unreliable electricity grids, inadequate water and sanitation systems, and overstrained transport networks. Natural hazards magnify the challenges faced by these fragile systems. Building on a wide range of case studies, global empirical analyses, and modeling exercises, Lifelines lays out a framework for understanding infrastructure resilience—the ability of infrastructure systems to function and meet users’ needs during and after a natural shock—and it makes an economic case for building more resilient infrastructure. Lifelines concludes by identifying five obstacles to resilient infrastructure and offering concrete recommendations and specific actions that can be taken by governments, stakeholders, and the international community to improve the quality and resilience of these essential services, and thereby contribute to more resilient and prosperous societies. PublicationKobe: Creative Reconstruction(World Bank, Tokyo, 2018-03) World Bank GroupThe cities of Japan are an exceptional source of learning on competitiveness of cities. They have recovered from disaster, dealt with population influx, industrialized at a rapid pace, responded to environmental challenge, reached the technological frontier, undergone a housing bubble and its collapse, and reconstruction followed by the natural disasters. Today, they face threats of demographic and technological change that are far from unique to the developed world. The Kobe Case highlights important lessons both on reconstruction of the city after a devastating earthquake devising ambitious new designs for devastated areas and building a life sciences cluster in modern era. This research was prepared by the Tokyo Development Learning Center (TDLC) under the auspices of the Social, Urban, Rural, and Resilience Global of the World Bank Group. Its objective is to create a knowledge base on what makes cities competitive, understand job creation at the city level, and capture the unique development experience of Japan for broad dissemination to development practitioners, government officials, academia and the private sector. The team would like to gratefully acknowledge the Government of Japan and its continued support of the Tokyo Development Learning Center (TDLC) program. PublicationLearning from Megadisasters : Lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-06-26) Ranghieri, Federica; Ishiwatari, Mikio; Ranghieri, Federica; Ishiwatari, MikioThe successes of Japan’s disaster risk management (DRM) system as well as the ways in which that system could be improved are reflected in the lessons drawn from the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and presented in the initial reports from the Learning from Megadisasters project. The GEJE was the first disaster ever recorded that included an earthquake, a tsunami, a nuclear power plant accident, a power supply failure, and a large-scale disruption of supply chains. Extreme disasters underscore the need for a holistic approach to DRM. Single-sector development planning cannot address the complexity of problems posed by natural hazards, let alone megadisasters, nor can such planning build resilience to threats. Faced with complex risks, Japan chose to build resilience by investing in preventative structural and nonstructural measures; nurturing a strong culture of knowledge and learning from past disasters; engaging in wise DRM regulation, legislation, and enforcement; and promoting cooperation among multiple stakeholders, between government agencies and ministries, between the private sector and the government, and among multiple levels of governance, from local to national to international. The book consolidates a set of 36 Knowledge Notes, research results of a joint study undertaken by the Government of Japan and the World Bank. These notes highlight key lessons learned in seven DRM thematic clusters—structural measures; nonstructural measures; emergency response; reconstruction planning; hazard and risk information and decision making; the economics of disaster risk, risk management, and risk financing; and recovery and relocation. Aimed at sharing Japanese cutting-edge knowledge with practitioners and decision makers, this book provides valuable guidance to other disaster-prone countries for mainstreaming DRM in their development policies and weathering their own natural disasters. PublicationThe World Bank Annual Report 2012: Volume 2. Responding with Knowledge and Experience(Washington, DC, 2012-10-05) World BankThe 2012 annual report of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) contains messages from both outgoing President Robert B. Zoellick and incoming President Dr. Jim Yong Kim. The Board of Directors statement highlights the Bank's achievements in 2012. The report showcases the Corporate Scorecard, presented in four tiers, providing information on the Bank's overall performance and results. Tier I provides the global development context. Tier II includes aggregate data collected through the standardized sector indicators. Tier III shows the overall success of Bank activities in achieving their development goals, as well as the Bank's operations effectiveness. Tier IV presents the Bank's organizational effectiveness and modernization. The report also discusses the financial commitments and resources, an operational summary, and World Bank lending by theme and sector for 2007-2012. Additional information on activities and outcomes is available in the annexes. PublicationThe End of the Third World?: Modernizing Multilateralism for a Multipolar World(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-04-14) Zoellick, Robert B.Robert B. Zoellick, President of the World Bank Group, spoke on the theme that we are now in a new, fast-evolving multipolar world economy in which outdated classifications no longer fit. He discussed these topics: (i) the end of the third world; (ii) multilateralism matters; (iii) new sources of demand; (iv) new poles of growth; (v) Africa as a potential pole of growth; (vi) economic shifts mean potential power shifts; (vii) the danger of geo-politics as usual; (viii) financial reform; (ix) climate change; (x) managing for crisis response; (xi) new role for rising powers; (xii) what does this changing world mean for development?; (xiii) modernizing multilateral institutions; (xiv) reforming to become more representative and legitimate; and (xv) reforming by adding resources; and (xvi) reforming to become more effective, innovative, and accountable. We need a League of Networks. PublicationTwo Dragon Heads : Contrasting Development Paths for Beijing and Shanghai(World Bank, 2010) Yusuf, Shahid; Nabeshima, KaoruIn broad terms, the sources of economic growth are well understood, but relatively few countries have succeeded in effectively harnessing this knowledge for policy purposes so as to sustain high rates of growth over an extended period of time. Among the ones that have done so, China stands out. Its gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, which averaged almost 10 percent between 1978 and 2008, is unmatched. Even more remarkable is the performance of China's three leading industrial regions: the Bohai region, the Pearl River Delta, and the Yangtze River (Changjiang) delta area. These regions have averaged growth rates well above 11 percent since 1985. Shanghai is the urban axis of the Yangtze River Delta's thriving economy; Beijing is the hinge of the Bohai region. Their performance and that of a handful of other urban regions will determine China's economic fortunes and innovativeness in the coming decades. The balance of this volume is divided into five chapters. Chapter two encapsulates the sources of China's growth and the current and future role of urban regions in China. The case for the continuing substantial presence of manufacturing industry for growth and innovation in the two urban centers is made in chapter three. Chapter four briefly examines the economic transformation of four global cities and distills stylized trends that can inform future development in Beijing and Shanghai. Chapter five describes the industrial structure of the two cities, identifies promising industrial areas, and analyzes the resource base that would underpin growth fueled by innovation. Finally, chapter six suggests how strategy could be reoriented on the basis of the lessons delineated in chapter four and the economic capabilities presented in chapter five. PublicationEco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities(World Bank, 2010) Suzuki, Hiroaki; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, HinakoThis book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, beginning with the background and rationale. Key challenges are described, and lessons are drawn from cities that have managed to turn these challenges into opportunities. A set of four key principles is introduced. These principles are the foundation upon which the initiative is built. They are: (1) a city-based approach enabling local governments to lead a development process that takes into account their specific circumstances, including their local ecology; (2) an expanded platform for collaborative design and decision making that accomplishes sustained synergy by coordinating and aligning the actions of key stakeholders; (3) a one-system approach that enables cities to realize the benefits of integration by planning, designing, and managing the whole urban system; and (4) an investment framework that values sustainability and resiliency by incorporating and accounting for life-cycle analysis, the value of all capital assets, and a broader scope for risk assessment in decision making. Part two presents a city-based decision support system that introduces core methods and tools to help cities as they work toward applying some of the core elements and stepping stones. Part two looks into methods for collaborative design and decision making and methods to create an effective long-term framework able to help align policies and the actions of stakeholders. Part three consists of the Field Reference Guide. The guide contains background literature designed to support cities in developing more in-depth insight and fluency with the issues at two levels. It provides a city-by-city and sector-by-sector lens on urban infrastructure. The next section comprises a series of sector notes, each of which explores sector-specific issues in urban development. PublicationModernizing Multilateralism and Markets(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2008-10-13) Zoellick, Robert B.Robert B. Zoellick, President the World Bank Group, delivered remarks on the following six strategic themes: a new multilateralism; priorities on a new steering group; international finance and development; the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the global trading system; energy and climate change; and fragile states and securing development.