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PublicationWorld Bank Annual Report 2023: A New Era in Development(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-28) World BankThis annual report, which covers the period from July 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023, has been prepared by the Executive Directors of both the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)—collectively known as the World Bank—in accordance with the respective bylaws of the two institutions. Ajay Banga, President of the World Bank Group and Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors, has submitted this report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors. PublicationThe World Bank Annual Report 2021: From Crisis to Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-10-01) World BankThe Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submits the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors. PublicationBuilding a Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-03-29) Malpass, DavidWorld Bank Group President David Malpass acknowledged the importance of the United Kingdom within the World Bank Group. He spoke about the Coronavirus (COVID-19) which descended on the poor like wildfire. He highlighted the Bank's approach to the interlinked crises of green, resilient, inclusive development (GRID). The World Bank is working to help countries build “Country Platforms” to engage with wider groups of development actors as they develop the programs with Bank support. He focused on three of the most pressing challenges of climate, debt, and inequality. There is a need for integrated, long-run strategies that emphasize green, resilient, and inclusive development. He concluded we can generate a recovery that ensures a broad and lasting rise in prosperity especially for the poorest and most marginalized. PublicationWorld Bank Outlook 2050 Strategic Directions Note: Supporting Countries to Meet Long-Term Goals of Decarbonization(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-24) Mukhi, Neha; Rana, Suneira; Mills-Knapp, Sara; Gessesse, EskedarOutlook 2050 examines how the World Bank can help countries plan for and achieve long-term decarbonization: through country programs, technical assistance, lending, and knowledge products. It identifies key trends in technology, markets, financing instruments, and consumer priorities, and examines their implications for climate action, economic growth strategies and development. Supporting countries in a transition to long-term decarbonization requires the World Bank to not only look 3–5 years ahead, roughly equivalent to typical election cycles, but look decades ahead, and then work with our clients to determine the near- and mid-term implications. It will also mean supporting the implementation of economy-wide strategies as well as cross-sectoral initiatives, not only focusing on single-sector initiatives, such as individual energy or transportation projects. Coinciding with a need for a major, global economic recovery – triggered by the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic – this ‘whole of economy' approach to deliver better growth and a better climate could provide the sustainable and resilient foundation for countries as they build – or rebuild – their economies. The Outlook 2050 approach prioritizes four economy-wide strategic directions: 1. Embed long-term climate priorities in country macroeconomic frameworks, to ensure that those frameworks, which guide fiscal policy and major national investments, properly account for climate risks and the benefits of ambitious climate action. 2. Embed long-term climate planning in national budgets and expenditure frameworks, to provide adequate budgetary support for climate action, optimize the overall allocation of public resources, and unlock private financial flows. 3. Embed long-term climate objectives in financial sector regulations and incentives, to ensure that the sector is resilient both to climate change impacts and to low-carbon transition risks, and to mobilize finance for climate action. 4. Embed long-term climate objectives in systems planning, to integrate climate with economic, social inclusion, and other objectives; assess cross-sectoral links and regional impacts; and identify trade-offs and synergies. PublicationLifelines: The Resilient Infrastructure Opportunity(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019-06-19) Hallegatte, Stephane; Rentschler, Jun; Rozenberg, JulieFrom serving our most basic needs to enabling our most ambitious ventures in trade and technology, infrastructure services are essential for raising and maintaining people’s quality of life. Yet millions of people, especially in low- and middle-income countries, are facing the consequences of unreliable electricity grids, inadequate water and sanitation systems, and overstrained transport networks. Natural hazards magnify the challenges faced by these fragile systems. Building on a wide range of case studies, global empirical analyses, and modeling exercises, Lifelines lays out a framework for understanding infrastructure resilience—the ability of infrastructure systems to function and meet users’ needs during and after a natural shock—and it makes an economic case for building more resilient infrastructure. Lifelines concludes by identifying five obstacles to resilient infrastructure and offering concrete recommendations and specific actions that can be taken by governments, stakeholders, and the international community to improve the quality and resilience of these essential services, and thereby contribute to more resilient and prosperous societies. PublicationWorld Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and Behavior(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015) World Bank GroupEvery policy relies on explicit or implicit assumptions about how people make choices. Those assumptions typically rest on an idealized model of how people think, rather than an understanding of how everyday thinking actually works. This year’s World Development Report argues that a more realistic account of decision-making and behavior will make development policy more effective. The Report emphasizes what it calls 'the three marks of everyday thinking.' In everyday thinking, people use intuition much more than careful analysis. They employ concepts and tools that prior experience in their cultural world has made familiar. And social emotions and social norms motivate much of what they do. These insights together explain the extraordinary persistence of some social practices, and rapid change in others. They also offer new targets for development policy. A richer understanding of why people save, use preventive health care, work hard, learn, and conserve energy provides a basis for innovative and inexpensive interventions. The insights reveal that poverty not only deprives people of resources but is an environment that shapes decision making, a fact that development projects across the board need to recognize. The insights show that the psychological foundations of decision making emerge at a young age and require social support. The Report applies insights from modern behavioral and social sciences to development policies for addressing poverty, finance, productivity, health, children, and climate change. It demonstrates that new policy ideas based on a richer view of decision-making can yield high economic returns. These new policy targets include: the choice architecture (for example, the default option); the scope for social rewards; frames that influence whether or not a norm is activated; information in the form of rules of thumb; opportunities for experiences that change mental models or social norms. Finally, the Report shows that small changes in context have large effects on behavior. As a result, discovering which interventions are most effective, and with which contexts and populations, inherently requires an experimental approach. Rigor is needed for testing the processes for delivering interventions, not just the products that are delivered.