World Bank Group Gender Thematic Policy Notes Series

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This series of thematic policy notes provides an analytical foundation for the update to the World Bank Group Gender Strategy (FY24-30). Each note summarizes key thematic issues, evidence on promising solutions, operational good practices, and promising areas for future engagement on promoting gender equality and empowerment.

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    Increasing Female Labor Force Participation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-01) Halim, Daniel ; O’Sullivan, Michael B. ; Sahay, Abhilasha
    Gender gaps in labor force participation persist worldwide. Closing this gap can lead to sizeable gains for economies—a 20 percent increase in GDP per capita, on average. Female labor force participation (FLFP) remains low due to lack of skills, assets and networks, time-based constraints, limited mobility, gender discrimination in hiring and promotion, and restrictive gender norms. Effective evidence-backed policy options can increase FLFP. They include providing childcare services, disseminating information on work opportunities and returns to employment, training in socio-emotional skills, addressing norms by engaging partners and family members, and targeting women via social protection, safety net, and public-works programs. The World Bank Group actively supports countries in boosting FLFP through development policy lending, advisory and analytical work, and supporting reforms to address constraining contextual factors, including legal barriers, social norms, and gender-based violence. This note sheds light on an array of policy options that are effective or show promise in improving FLFP.
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    Placing Gender Equality at the Center of Climate Action
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-01) Deininger, Franziska ; Woodhouse, Andrea ; Kuriakose, Anne T. ; Gren, Ana ; Liaqat, Sundas
    Women and disadvantaged groups tend to be more affected by climate change across various dimensions, including health, livelihoods, and agency. Gender gaps are increasingly seen as barriers to effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. Women are also critical leaders and participants of low-carbon transitions. This policy note investigates how gender equality and climate change intersect; explores programmatic experience on the gender-climate nexus; identifies promising entry points and solutions; and offers recommendations for development practitioners, policymakers, and businesses.