Private Participation in Infrastructure Database

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This series reviews new private participation in infrastructure (PPI) projects.

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2017 Water and Sewerage Sector: Private Participation in Infrastructure

2018-12-01, World Bank Group

In 2017, 30 projects in the water and sewerage sector received a total of USD 1.9 billion in investment—a decline of seven percent from 2016 levels. This not only marks the second-lowest level of investment in the previous 10 years (after the USD 1.2 billion recorded in 2011), but is also 55 percent lower than the five-year average investment level of USD 4.2 billion. The investment peak of USD 6.0 billion in 2012 was due to a substantial amount of investment (USD 5.4 billion) in LAC. A second peak in 2015 was the result of USD 3.1 billion worth of investment in LAC and a USD 1.2-billion investment in Russia. The declining levels of sectoral investments in recent years are largely explained by the muted investments in these regions. The PPI investment commitment in this sector in 2017 accounted for only two percent of the total PPI investment, compared to 3.8 percent over the previous five years, and three percent over the previous 10 years. On the brighter side, 2017 marked a 21-percent increase in investments in water-treatment plants, which accounted for 84 percent of sectoral investments (USD 1.6 billion out of USD 1.9 billion). It is also 50-percent higher than the average investment in water-treatment plants in the previous five years. China accounted for four-fifths of investments in water-treatment projects, with the majority of these being greenfield projects. 2017 WATER & SEWERAGE SECTOR On the other hand, the water-utility subsector received the lowest level of investment of the previous 10 years; this was the primary cause for the drop in sectoral investments in recent years. There were only three water-utility projects, with a total worth of USD 291 million.Interestingly, the water sector saw a large percentage of contracts granted at the local or municipal levels. Over the previous 10 years, an average of 77 percent of contracts were granted at the local and municipal levels, whereas for other sectors, a majority of contracts were granted at the national level. In 2017, 22 of 30 projects were contracted by local or municipal governments. Twenty-one of these projects were in China; they amounted to USD 1.06 billion, and 20 of them were treatment plants. Of the four projects that were contracted by state or provincial governments, three were from China and amounted to USD 365 million. Brazil had one project (worth USD 3.4 million) contracted by a local or municipal government, and one project (worth USD 215 million) by a state or provincial government. There were also individual projects seen in India, Indonesia and Rwanda that were commissioned by the national government.

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2017 ICT Backbone Sector: Private Participation in Infrastructure

2018-12-01, World Bank Group

Starting in 2017, PPI investment has been reported for ICT-backbone infrastructure (such as fiber-optic cables (land-based/submarine cables), mobile towers, base stations and other hard assets) with an active government component, whereby the government is involved by way of being a contracting authority (i.e., a party to a concession agreement) or the full or part-owner of the assets. Information was also back-filled for the previous 10 years based on the new methodology, therefore this note covers a 10-year period. Tracking private investment in this sector will be increasingly important due to the critical role that ICT plays in development. With some seven billion mobile connections and 60-percent coverage of 3G networks worldwide, the ICT sector is critical for disruptive innovation and for leapfrogging development and enhancing the impact of the fourth Industrial Revolution. In 2017, private investment in ICT amounted to USD 3.0 billion across six projects (including one cross-border project). This marked a significant increase over the investment level of USD 462 million in 2016, as well as the previous 10-year average (2007-2016) of USD 1.3 billion. The 3.2-percent share of ICT in global PPI investment in 2017 marked the second highest share of the last 10 years, after the four-percent share in 2008. However, the ICT sector only accounted for an average of 1.3 percent of global PPI investment over the last 10 years. Overall, there were 37 ICT-backbone projects recorded since 2008, totaling USD 14.1 billion. Of six projects in 2017, two fell into the category of mobile-network infrastructure development. The remaining projects were submarine/land fiber-optic cable-installation projects. The two network development projects, namely the USD 1.5 billion 4G-network-development project in Myanmar and the USD 946 million national-mobile-network development project in Mexico, contributed more than 80 percent of the total ICT investment. The average project size in 2017 (USD 500 million) was almost five times higher than in 2016, because all the projects in 2016 were cable-installation projects, which are typically smaller than network-development projects. However, the average project size in the previous ten-year period was USD 381 million.

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Private Investment in Water and Sewerage Recovers in 2011, Mostly Due to Activity in China

2012-09, Militaru, Andreea

In 2011, 31 new water and sewerage projects reached financial or contractual closure in six lower-and upper-middle income countries: Algeria (1), Brazil (2), China (26), Jordan (1), Mexico (1) and Peru (1). Total investment commitments in water projects reached US$2.6.2 billion, of which over US$1 billion included investments in existing projects and US$1.5 billion included investments in new projects. Compared to 2010, private activity by number of projects increased by 24 percent, while by total investment it increased by 8.3 percent.

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Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa in the First Half of 2011 Increased Compared to Recent Years

2012-02, Nicholas, Alexander

In the first semester of 2011, three new projects reached financial closure in Sub-Saharan Africa, representing investment commitments of US$697 million. Investment in the first semester of 2011 increased by 27 percent compared with the first semester of 2010, and has risen steadily since the financial crisis of 2008. By number of projects, activity in 2011 decreased by 50 percent compared with the first semester of 2010 indicating fewer, larger projects. The three projects in Sub-Saharan Africa were notable for their use of financial products from multilateral and bilateral agencies.

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2017 Transport Sector: Private Participation in Infrastructure

2018-12-01, World Bank Group

Transport PPI investments form an integral part of total PPI investments. Since 2008, transport PPI investments have been forming a larger and larger percentage of PPI investments across the four sectors (energy, ICT, water and transport). PPI investments in transport used to attract 23 to 29 percent of all PPI investments prior to 2011. After 2011, transport PPI investments haveconsistently garnered more than 30 percent of all PPI investments, reaching a high of 61 percent i

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Snapshot : Sponsors from Singapore and Infrastructure Projects with Private Participation (1990-2011)

2013-03, Militaru, Andreea

A total of United States (U.S.) 38 billion dollars in investment commitments, 107 infrastructure projects, 19 countries, and 4 sectors: this is a quick snapshot of what Singaporean companies invested in private infrastructure projects from 1990 to 2011.1 Nearly 67 percent of total investment and over 85 percent of all infrastructure projects were implemented after 2000. Private investment peaked in 2007 when Singaporean sponsors invested over U.S. 6.4 billion dollars and developed a number of 19 new infrastructure projects. The project was expected to cost U.S. 1,426.38 million dollars and achieved financial closure in September 2007. A consortium of banks with rural electrification corporation in the lead provided the debt for the project.

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Private Investment in Transport Increases in 2011, Focusing on the Road and Rail Sectors

2012-09, Militaru, Andreea

In 2011, 68 new transport projects reached financial or contractual closure in 15 lower-and upper-middle income countries: Argentina (1 project), Brazil (4), Chile (3),China (4), India (41), Kosovo(1), Mexico (3), Nigeria (1), Peru (3), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (1), Sri Lanka (1), Togo (1), Turkey (2), and Zimbabwe (1). Total investment commitments in transport projects reached US$31.9 billion, of which US$30 billion were investments in new projects and US$1.9 billion were investments in existing projects. Total investment in transport projects in the region amounted to US$17 billion, a 4 percent increase from 2010 levels.

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2017 Energy Sector: Private Participation in Infrastructure

2018-12-01, World Bank Group

In 2017, PPI investments in energy stood at USD 51.9 billion across 203 projects (compared to USD 46.8 billion across 183 projects in 2016), and accounted for more than half (56 percent) of the PPI investments across all four infrastructure sectors included in the PPI database—energy, water, transport and ICT. Of these four, the energy sector has attracted the most private-sector participation. By dollar value, from 2008 to 2017, cumulative investments in the energy sector (conventional and renewable energy) accounted for approximately 59 percent of total PPI investments. Although the energy sector continued to be the predominant sector attracting private investments in 2017, because of increased investment in other sectors, the share of energy-sector investments decreased from 69 percent of all PPI investments in 2016 to 56 percent in 2017.Energy investments reached their peak in 2012, as private investors shrugged off the effects of the global financial crisis and pumped USD 89.6 billion into the sector. However, by 2015, private-sector investments in energy reached their lowest levels, at USD 38.5 billion, a trend largely accelerated by a steep drop in oil prices in 2014 and a subsequent decrease of investment in the conventional-energy sector. From 2015 to 2017, investments picked up gradually, with increasing investments in renewables.In terms of the number of projects, two-thirds of all projects (203 out of 304) in 2017 were in the energy sector. Interestingly, the number of energy projects as a percentage of all PPI projects fluctuated very little after 2014. On average, from 2008 to 2017, the PPI energy projects accounted for 69 percent of all PPI projects.

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Government Support to Public Private Partnerships : 2011 Highlights

2012-09, Jett, Alexander Nicholas, Andreea, Militaru, van Eerd, Robbert

In FY 12, the Public Private Partnership (PPI) database expanded its coverage to create a flag to identify PPP projects and to expand its coverage to include government support to PPPs. To accomplish this, a new methodology was developed by the PPI Database team, which was reviewed by the global expert team on PPPs with members from the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The new coverage includes key financial data (where available) such as types of government guarantees; the debt-to-equity ratio; the amount of debt funding from commercial banks, donors and local banks; the names of banks providing loans; and government support to project revenues, including tax deductions. The core PPI database covers a broader range of private participation in infrastructure. For the purpose of tracking government support to PPPs, the following definition of PPPs was adopted.

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Private Investment in IDA Countries in the First Half of 2011 was Concentrated in a Few, Large Projects

2012-03, Nicholas, Alexander

In the first semester of 2011, three new projects reached financial closure in the International Development Association (IDA) countries of Lao PDR, Malawi and Zambia, representing investment commitments of US$1.042 billion. Investment in the first semester of 2011 decreased by 39 percent compared with the first semester of 2010, but was roughly on par with investment in the first semester of 2009. In the past five years, Investment in the first semester has generally been over US$1 billion, with the exception of the financial crisis of 2008. By number of projects, activity in 2011 decreased by 70 percent compared with the first semester of 2010 indicating fewer, larger projects. The three projects reaching financial closure were unique in that they were relatively large projects for IDA countries.