Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 49
  • Publication
    Where and How Slum Electrification Succeeds: A Proposal for Replication
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Dave, Rutu; Smyser, Connie; Koehrer, Fabian
    Substantial gains have been made in recent years in electrifying urban and peri-urban areas in the developing world, in partial fulfillment of the global commitment to ensure access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy for all by 2030. But additional efforts are required to reach slum dwellers, who often fall back on power theft or informal connections to obtain access to electricity. This kind of access, however, comes at a high cost for paying customers and distribution companies. Joint efforts by government, utilities, and local populations can break the vicious cycle of theft and poor service.
  • Publication
    Output-Based Aid in Mali Rural Electrification Hybrid System Project
    (2015-06) World Bank
    Electrification can be a significant driver for improving livelihoods in rural communities. In rural Mali, where more than 80 percent of the country’s population lives, the electrification rate is only 15 percent. Increasing access to electricity in rural Mali is crucial for economic development, social cohesion, and reconstruction following the country’s recent period of conflict, political instability, and food insecurity. This note discusses an innovative output-based aid (OBA) project in rural Mali, the first such project in the energy sector to support development of mini-grids on a large scale. The project complements an innovative hybrid-system model supported by the International Development Association (IDA) and climate investment funds and scaling up renewable energy in low income countries program (SREP) to expand rural access to modern energy services and increase renewable generation.
  • Publication
    Surge in Solar-Powered Homes : Experience in Off-Grid Rural Bangladesh
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-10-08) Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Yunus, Mohammad; Haque, A.K. Enamul
    Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising living standards and reducing poverty, particularly in previously lagging regions. Rapid solar home system (SHS) expansion in Bangladesh to some 3 million rural households by early 2014 has drawn the attention of donors and governments of other countries. The book s broad aim is twofold: (a) to assess the welfare impact of SHS on households, and (b) to evaluate the present institutional structure and financing mechanisms in place, noting that households want cheaper systems and good quality service while suppliers require a reasonable market-based profit to stay in business. The study entailed an intensive empirical investigation based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data consisted mainly of a large-scale, nationally representative household survey with appropriate geographic spread. Conducted in 2012 by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) and assisted by the World Bank, the household survey was designed to examine SHS benefits and costs. The book addresses a number of research issues, which are grouped according to general and gendered household impact, program delivery and monitoring of technical standards, market size and demand, and carbon emissions reduction. The book also analyzes household uses of solar-electric energy services. Typically, SHS models are used for lighting, powering fans and television sets, and charging mobile devices and other electrical equipment. Finally, the book evaluates the gender-disaggregated benefits and women's empowerment from SHS adoption. The gender analysis included two major research questions: (a) can the socioeconomic status of rural women be enhanced by increasing the opportunity to participate in alternative energy-service delivery, and (b) if SHS brings positive impacts in terms of social indicators, what additional efforts can supplement them to bring about a radical shift in gender roles and responsibilities. The book's findings show that better household lighting improves household welfare both directly and indirectly. The book has eight chapters. Chapter one is introduction. Chapter two describes the current status of Bangladesh's SHS expansion program, including salient features of system operation, as well as program delivery and financing. Chapter three reviews the role of electrification in rural development and international experience in using SHS as a complementary solution in remote off-grid areas. Based on the survey data findings, chapter four identifies the major drivers of SHS adoption and system capacity selection at the household and village level, while chapter five discusses and estimates the welfare benefits. Chapter six focuses on SHS market analysis and role of the subsidy, including consumers' willingness to pay and the potential impact of subsidy phase-out. Chapter seven turns to the quality of partner organization (PO) service and other supply-side issues, along with market constraints to meet future demand. Finally, chapter eight offers policy perspectives and a way forward.
  • Publication
    Housing and Urbanization in Africa : Unleashing a Formal Market Process
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05) Collier, Paul; Venables, Anthony J.
    The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its environs affect identity and self-respect. Commentary on the emergence of an African middle class has become common, but it is being defined in terms of discretionary spending and potential for consumer markets. A politically more salient definition of a middle class will be in terms of home ownership and the consequent stake in economic stability. This paper examines why such a process has not happened in Africa. The hypothesis is that the peculiarity of housing exposes it to multiple points of vulnerability not found together either in private consumer goods or in other capital goods. Each point of vulnerability can be addressed by appropriate government policies, but addressing only one or two of them has little payoff if the others remain unresolved. Further, the vulnerabilities faced by housing are the responsibility of distinct branches of government, with little natural collaboration. Unblocking multiple impediments to housing therefore requires coordination that can come only from the head of government: ministries of housing have neither the political weight nor the analytic capacity to play this role effectively. Yet in Africa, housing has never received such high political priority. This in turn is because the centrality of housing in well-being and of housing investment in development has not been sufficiently appreciated.
  • Publication
    Power Sector Policy Note for the Kyrgyz Republic
    (Washington, DC, 2014-04) World Bank
    This power sector policy note analyzes the principal challenges in the power sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and identifies possible solutions for overcoming them. To inform the analysis, the note describes historical operational and financial performance of the power sector companies between 2007 and 2012, and projects performance until 2030. It also describes the legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements in the sector, and compares the arrangements in the Kyrgyz Republic to those in other countries' power sectors. The note relies on discussions with, and data provided by key stakeholders, including the power companies, the Ministry of Energy and Industry and the Regulatory Department under the Ministry of Energy and Industry. The analysis in the note is targeted to inform, and support for the on-going reform efforts of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in the power sector. In 2012, the Government approved the Power Sector Development Strategy outlining key medium-term reform objectives for the sector, and in 2013 it approved the action plan for reforming the power sector to operationalize the strategy. The engagement of the World Bank and other donors in the power sector aims to support the implementation of the action plan. The note substantiates the need for reforms through analysis and proposes solutions consistent with the strategy and action plan.
  • Publication
    Mongolia : Development Impacts of Solar-Powered Electricity Services
    (Washington, DC, 2014-01) World Bank
    Mongolia is a vast landlocked country with a relatively small population. Other than those living in the capital city and a few urban centers, the rest of its citizens (about 35 percent or one million people) are geographically disbursed throughout the rural countryside. Among them about three quarters are nomadic herders living in portable tents (gers). Given the immense logistical and climatic challenges, rural electrification was largely undeveloped until the Government launched the National 100,000 Solar Ger Electrification Program in 1999. The World Bank-assisted Renewable Energy and Rural Electricity Access Project (REAP) was conceived in 2006 to help the Government revitalize the 100k Program and remove other barriers to rural electrification. The ultimate objective of the project was to increase electricity access and improve the reliability of services in off-grid soum centers and amongst the herder population. The main portion of this report is divided into two chapters (Chapters 2-3). Chapter 2 is a brief description of the two beneficiary surveys carried out after REAP was completed. It includes the methodologies used, the survey processes, and the survey's areas of focus. Chapter 3 presents the main results and findings of the surveys based on qualitative and quantitative information and data collected. They include three main aspects: use and sustainability of REAP portable photovoltaic solar home systems; immediate impacts of the resulting changes in energy use patterns; and where the availability and use of electricity have the most impact on the nomadic herder community's quality of life and development.
  • Publication
    Global Review of Grievance Redress Mechanisms in World Bank Projects
    (Washington, DC, 2014) World Bank
    Effectively addressing grievances from people impacted by World Bank projects is a core component of managing operational risk and improving a project s results. Grievance redress mechanisms (GRMs) can be an effective tool for early identification, assessment, and resolution of complaints on projects. Understanding when and how a GRM may improve project outcomes can help both project teams and beneficiaries improve results. However, there is little data available on the prevalence, quality, or impact of GRMs in existing World Bank projects. This note provides a snapshot of current usage of GRMs in World Bank projects, a qualitative assessment of selected GRMs, and recommendations for improved risk management via GRM implementation and design. The goal of the review is to provide project staff and managers with: (i) a quantitative overview of current GRM application in project design; (ii) qualitative assessment of GRM implementation issues; and (iii) recommendations for improved risk management via GRM design and implementation.
  • Publication
    Reducing Poverty by Closing South Asia's Infrastructure Gap
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-12) Andrés, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matías
    Despite recent rapid growth and poverty reduction, the South Asia Region (SAR) continues to suffer from a combination of insufficient economic growth, slow urbanization, and huge infrastructure gaps that together could jeopardize future progress. It is also home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line of any region, coupled with some of the fastest demographic growth rates of any region. Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people living on less than US$1.25 a day in South Asia decreased by only 18 percent, while the population grew by 42 percent. If South Asia hopes to meet its development goals and not risk slowing down, or even halting, growth and poverty alleviation, it is essential to make closing its huge infrastructure gap a priority. But the challenges on this front are monumental. Many people living in SAR remain unconnected to a reliable electrical grid, a safe water supply, sanitary sewerage disposal, and sound roads and transportation networks. This region requires significant infrastructure investment (roads, rails, power, water supply, sanitation, and telecommunications) not only to ensure basic service delivery and enhance the quality of life of its growing population, but also to avoid a possible binding constraint on economic growth owing to the substantial infrastructure gap.
  • Publication
    Housing and Urbanization in Africa : Unleashing a Formal Market Process
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-11) Collier, Paul; Venables, Anthony J.
    The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its environs affect identity and self-respect. Commentary on the emergence of an African middle class has become common, but it is being defined in terms of discretionary spending and potential for consumer markets. A politically more salient definition of a middle class will be in terms of home ownership and the consequent stake in economic stability. This paper examines why such a process has not happened in Africa. Our hypothesis is that the peculiarity of housing exposes it to multiple points of vulnerability not found together either in private consumer goods or in other capital goods. Each point of vulnerability can be addressed by appropriate government policies, but addressing only one or two of them has little payoff if the others remain unresolved. Further, the vulnerabilities faced by housing are the responsibility of distinct branches of government, with little natural collaboration. Unblocking multiple impediments to housing therefore requires coordination that can come only from the head of government: ministries of housing have neither the political weight nor the analytic capacity to play this role effectively. Yet in Africa, housing has never received such high political priority. This in turn is because the centrality of housing in well-being and of housing investment in development has not been sufficiently appreciated.
  • Publication
    Female Business Ownership and Informal Sector Persistence
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-09) Ghani, Ejaz; O'Connell, Stephen D.
    The informal sector in India has been exceptionally persistent over the past two decades. Is this a bad thing? Not necessarily. This paper shows that a substantial share of the persistence in India's unorganized manufacturing sector is due to the rapid increase in female-owned businesses. Had women's participation remained in the proportion to male-owned businesses that was evident in 1994, the unorganized manufacturing sector would have declined in share rather than increased. Most of these new female-owned businesses are opened in the household and at a small scale, about a third of the size of a typical male-owned business in the informal sector. Yet, it appears that these businesses offer economic opportunities not otherwise present and a transition for some women from unpaid domestic work.