Development Knowledge and Learning

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The Development Knowledge and Learning series is geared toward making specialized World Bank knowledge rapidly available to policy makers and the development community. Studies in the series comprise the knowledge outputs of the Bank's operational work, tend to be focused on narrowly defined topics, and can include works in progress that are disseminated for discussion purposes.

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    Combating Noncommunicable Diseases in Kenya: An Investment Case
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-03-24) Mensah, Julia ; Korir, Julius ; Nugent, Rachel ; Hutchinson, Brian
    Noncommunicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, and heart diseases are the leading cause of death and disability. In Kenya, the growing prevalence of these diseases is a major public health concern and a hindrance to long-term economic growth. This is because these conditions reduce human capital and divert societal resources. The high cost of managing the growing caseload of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) also afflicts Kenyan families, businesses, and the government, and increasingly leads to impoverishment. Developing an appropriate policy response to the threat of NCDs requires a clear understanding of the economic impacts as well as the benefits of potential interventions, both from a health and an economic perspective. Such information allows policy makers to evaluate the trade-offs between different investment decisions, with the goal of ensuring that any interventions maximize the rewards to individuals and to society at large. Combating Noncommunicable Diseases in Kenya is one of a few published studies on the economic burden of NCDs in Kenya. It focuses on a limited set of conditions, aligned with the burden of NCDs in Kenya, and demonstrates both the long-term costs of these diseases and the strong health and economic benefits of scaling up interventions. It contributes to a growing body of analysis on NCDs in Kenya—and in Africa—and provides muchneeded evidence to facilitate advocacy and foster dialogue to confront this serious challenge.
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    Pastoral Development in Ethiopia: Trends and the Way Forward
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019-06-11) Gebremeskel, Esayas Nigatu ; Desta, Solomon ; Kassa, Girma K.
    Despite half a century of development efforts, multidimensional deprivation and vulnerability to shocks remain a serious problem in Ethiopia’s pastoral areas. A review of past and ongoing pastoral and agro-pastoral (PAP) development efforts in Ethiopia, analysis of the current socioeconomic situation in relation to PAPs, and an extensive literature review of emerging knowledge on the topic point to the need for future PAP development to focus on resilience, transformation, and sustainability. This study, which was commissioned by the World Bank and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), proposes six strategic pillars: livelihood support for improved pastoral and agro-pastoral production; livelihood diversification and improved agro-pastoral extension; integrated rangeland and water development, and secure access to key resources; transformation and commercialization of the livestock industry; enhanced access and use of basic social and economic services; enhanced social protection and disaster risk management; and institutional and human capacity development. In addition, intervention-planning needs to be sensitive to conflict, should mainstream gender issues and nutrition, and should emphasize women and youth employment, climate change and adaptation, information technology, action-oriented research, and knowledge management and documentation.