Items in this collection
PublicationWhy Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor(2009-10) Beegle, Kathleen; Gatti, RobertaDespite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience we find significant negative impacts on education, and also find a higher probability of wage work for those young adults who worked as children while attending school. We find few significant effects on health. PublicationWomen's Use of Private and Government Health Facilities for Childbirth in Nairobi's Informal Settlements(2009) Bazant, Eva S.; Koenig, Michael A.; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Mills, SamuelThe private sector's role in increasing the use of maternal health care for the poor in developing countries has received increasing attention, yet few data exist for urban slums. Using household-survey data from 1,926 mothers in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 2006, we describe and examine the factors associated with women's use of private and government health facilities for childbirth. More women gave birth at private facilities located in the settlements than at government facilities, and one-third of the women gave birth at home or with the assistance of a traditional birth attendant. In multivariate models, women's education, ethnic group, and household wealth were associated with institutional deliveries, especially in government hospitals. Residents in the more disadvantaged settlement were more likely than those in the better-off settlement to give birth in private facilities. In urban areas, maternal health services in both the government and private sectors should be strengthened, and efforts made to reach out to women who give birth at home. PublicationA Note on Schooling and Wage Inequality in the Public and Private Sector(2009) Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sakellariou, ChrisThe few studies that have examined the wage impact of education across the earning distribution have focused on high-income countries and show education to be more profitable at the top of the distribution. The implication is that education may increase inequality. Extending the analysis to 16 East Asian and Latin American countries, in Latin America we observe a pattern similar to that of Europe/North America (increasing wage effects), while in East Asia the wage effects are predominantly decreasing by earnings quantile. However, once the analysis is performed separately for the public and the private sector, it is revealed that the strongly decreasing impact of schooling on earnings in the public sectors of East Asian countries is responsible for the overall observed decreasing pattern, while the impact of schooling on earnings in the private sectors of these countries is non-decreasing. PublicationMeasuring Pro-poorness: A Unifying Approach with New Results(2009) Essama-Nssah, B.Recent economic literature on pro-poor growth measurement is drawn together, using a common analytical framework which lends itself to some significant extensions. First, a new class of pro-poorness measures is defined, to complement existing classes, with similarities and differences which are fully discussed. Second, all of these measures of pro-poorness can be decomposed across income sources or components of consumption expenditure (depending on the application). This permits the analyst to "unbundle" a pattern of growth, revealing the contributions to overall pro-poorness of constituent parts. Third, all of these pro-poorness measures can be modified to measure pro-poorness at percentiles. An application to consumption expenditures in Indonesia in the 1990s reveals that the poverty reduction achieved remains far below what would have been achieved under distributional neutrality. This can be tracked back to changes in expenditure components. PublicationAERC-Cornell Symposium on 'Risk, Knowledge and Health in Africa': ARV Treatment and Time Allocation to Household Tasks: Evidence from Kenya(2009) d'Adda, Giovanna; Goldstein, Markus; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Nangami, Mabel; Thirumurthy, HarshaUsing longitudinal survey data collected over a period of two years, this paper examines the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment on the time allocated to various household tasks by treated HIV-positive patients and their household members. We study outcomes such as time devoted to housework, firewood and water collection, as well as care-giving and care-seeking. As treatment improves the health and productivity of patients, we find that female patients in particular are able to increase the amount of time they devote to water and firewood collection. This increased productivity of patients coupled with large decreases in the amount of time they spend seeking medical care leads to a reduced burden on children and other household members. We find evidence that boys and girls in treated patients' households devote less time to housework and other chores. These results suggest that the provision of ARV treatment generates a wide variety of benefits to households in resource-poor settings. PublicationAgriculture for Development: Toward a New Paradigm(2009) Byerlee, Derek; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, ElisabethThe fundamental role that agriculture plays in development has long been recognized. In the seminal work on the subject, agriculture was seen as a source of contributions that helped induce industrial growth and a structural transformation of the economy. However, globalization, integrated value chains, rapid technological and institutional innovations, and environmental constraints have deeply changed the context for agriculture's role. We argue that a new paradigm is needed that recognizes agriculture's multiple functions for development in that emerging context: triggering economic growth, reducing poverty, narrowing income disparities, providing food security, and delivering environmental services. Yet, governments and donors have neglected these functions of agriculture with the result that agriculture growth has been reduced, 75% of world poverty is rural, sectoral income disparities have exploded, food insecurity has returned, and environmental degradation is widespread, compromising sustainability. Mobilizing these functions requires shifting the political economy to overcome antiagriculture policy biases, strengthening governance for agriculture, and tailoring priorities to country conditions. PublicationReverse Gender Gap in Schooling in Bangladesh: Insights from Urban and Rural Households(2009) Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz; Chaudhury, NazmulThis paper documents a reverse gender gap in secondary schooling outcomes in Bangladesh drawing upon several rounds of nationally representative household survey data. In terms of enrolment status and years of schooling completed, boys are found to lag behind girls in the rural as well as in the urban area. Within the urban sample, the gender gap is widest in the non-metropolitan area. These findings are robust to extensive control for demand and supply-side determinants of schooling and remain unchanged even when we use a within household estimator. We consider one hypothesis, namely gender-differentiated response to a conditional cash transfer program to reconcile the findings of this reverse gender gap. PublicationBailing Out the World's Poorest(2009) Ravallion, MartinThe current financial crisis is global in nature, but it will have differing impacts within the developing world. Some people and some countries are more vulnerable than others. The author believes that it also threatens to have lasting impacts for some of those affected, notably through the nutrition and schooling of children in poor families. The author believes mistakes were made in past crises and identifies key design features for safety net programs that can help compensate for the likely welfare losses in the short-term while also promoting longer-term recovery. PublicationUrban Proximity, Agricultural Potential and Rural Non-farm Employment: Evidence from Bangladesh(2009) Deichmann, Uwe; Shilpi, Forhad; Vakis, RenosThis paper presents empirical evidence on the relative importance of farm and urban linkages for rural non-farm employment in Bangladesh. The results suggest that people are more likely to be employed in well-paid wage employment and self-employment in the non-farm sector if they are closer to urban centers. Those who are further away from such centers are even less likely to be in well-paying non-farm jobs if they are living in areas with greater agricultural potential. The empirical results highlight the need for improved connectivity of regions with higher agricultural potential to urban centers for non-farm development in Bangladesh. PublicationThe Implications of Changing Educational and Family Circumstances for Children's Grade Progression in Rural Pakistan : 1997-2004(2009) Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mete, Cem; Grant, Monica J.We assess factors affecting primary and middle school dropout in rural Punjab and NorthWest Frontier Province over 6 years (1997-2004). These data are unique in a developing-country setting in longitudinally tracking changes in both school and household environments. While grade retention has improved, girls' dropout rates remain fairly high. Results suggest the importance of both household and school factors. For girls, arrival in the family of an unwanted birth in the last 6 years and enrollment in a government (not private) primary school significantly increase the likelihood of dropout, whereas availability of post-primary schooling, having a mother who attended school, and living in a better-off household reduce the probability of dropout. For boys, school quality, measured by the percent of residential teachers in the primary school, and living in a more developed community significantly reduce the probability of dropping out; loss of household remittances significantly increases the likelihood of dropout.