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PublicationLand Asset Securitization: An Innovative Approach to Distinguish between Benefit-sharing and Compensation in Hydropower Development(Taylor and Francis, 2020-08-08) Shi, Guoqing; Shang, KaiDevelopment Project (DP) is creating the benefits for all and taking benefit-sharing (BS) as a goal. BS involves paying something above the fair market compensation or replacement value of the assets lost in the displacement and resettlement. BS becomes more important and complicated when the lost assets are not transacted as commodities in a market. BS is a key to resolve the challenges on impoverishment caused development induced displacement and resettlement globally. An innovated BS approach and methodology for land asset securitization (LAS) is proposed. It takes occupied lands as capital investment in the DP rather than for displaced assets’ compensation only based on natural resources transfer theory. LAS takes the approach in lands resourcing, land resources capitalization and land assets securitization. It establishes the mechanism to arrange additional benefits for resettlers. It enables rural resettlers to receive appropriate compensation to sustain basic livelihoods at the DP construction and early commercial operation stage as well as share profits equally during full operation. LAS will prevent either the hydropower developer or the government from having interests in securitized assets. LAS is a sustainable approach to promote win-win among resettlers, developers, governments, and civil society. PublicationThe Kingdom of the Bicycle: What Wuhan Can Learn from Amsterdam(Elsevier, 2017-06) Frame, Gladys; Ardila-Gomez, Arturo; Chen, YangChina used to be called “the Kingdom of the Bicycle,” but this is no longer the case. Bicycle use in China has been marginalized over the past 30 years. In contrast, the Netherlands has seen bicycle use grow since the 1970s. This paper—through a comparative analysis of data from Wuhan and Amsterdam—explores the reasons why the two countries have gone in different directions. Although these cities have different socio-demographics they experienced similar issues. This paper suggests lessons that Wuhan can learn from Amsterdam. However, these are one-way as it is considered that Amsterdam has little to learn from the decline of bicycle use in Wuhan. PublicationRoom for Improvement: Hydroclimatic Challenges to Poverty-Reducing Development of the Brahmaputra River Basin(Elsevier, 2015-12) Ray, Patrick A.; Wi, Sungwook; Khalil, Abedalrazq; Chatikavanij, Vansa; Brown, CaseyThe Brahmaputra river is the largest (by annual discharge) of the three in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) system, and by itself carries more flow than all but 4 rivers in the world. It is the primary water source for over 130 million people, many of whom are mired in chronic poverty. The potential in the Brahmaputra River basin for poverty-reducing development of agriculture and hydropower is great. However, progress in these sectors and others has been hindered by significant natural and anthropogenic challenges. As they attempt to develop their water resources in a manner that reduces water-related vulnerabilities, the people of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, Bhutan, Northeast India, and Bangladesh face a number of challenges, including: endemic poverty; floods; droughts; groundwater over-abstraction; political unrest; and the broader development ambitions of the member nations (leading to net import or export of resources from the basin). To those challenges have recently been added climate change and difficult decisions regarding hydropower development. A critical compounding factor in the Brahmaputra basin is the lack of an authoritative, reliable, and comprehensive network of basin-wide information on climate, streamflow, natural hazards, and economic factors, such as agricultural production, prices, and trade. Anthropocentric development in the Brahmaputra basin must balance the goal of immediate poverty reduction with the preservation of the vulnerable, rich natural heritage of the basin, in the interest both of intergenerational human equity, and biocentric egalitarianism. In the space allotted here, we provide a snapshot of the demographic and hydroclimatic characteristics of the basin of greatest concern to water system planners aiming at poverty reduction through sustainable development. We propose that the basin's hydro-climatological, economic, and political complexities are such that a basin-wide water system knowledge platform is needed to organize quantitative thinking on potential water-related investments in the basin. PublicationInput-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison(Public Library of Science, 2014-03-03) Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, FanInput-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PublicationBiophysical, Socioeconomic, and Geopolitical Vulnerabilities to Hydropower Development on the Nu River, China(The Resilience Alliance, 2013) Tullos, Disiree D.; Foster-Moore, Eric; Magee, Darrin; Tilt, Bryan; Wolf, Aaron T.; Schmitt, Edwin; Gassert, Francis; Kibler, KellyRapid hydropower development is occurring in China’s Yunnan province in response to increasing clean energy demands, exposing potential vulnerabilities of the area’s ecosystems, communities, and geopolitical systems. Here, we present original data on the cultures, economics, hydro-politics, and environments of the Nu River basin, based on household surveys, analysis of geopolitical events, and hydrological, hydraulic, and landscape modeling. We identify sources of vulnerability and investigate relationships among biophysical, socioeconomic, and geopolitical elements that contribute to vulnerability. Our results illustrate the role of geographic isolation in intensifying vulnerability to hydropower development and how access to information, data uncertainty, and geopolitics influence the vulnerability of people and the environment. We emphasize specific needs for developing support mechanisms for social, ecological, and political groups that are vulnerable to hydropower development.