Journal articles published externally

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These are journal articles by World Bank authors published externally.

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  • Publication
    Scaling Education Innovations in Complex Emergencies: A Meta-Evaluation of Five Process and Three Impact Evaluations (Published online: 30 Sep 2022)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-10-12) De Hoop, Thomas; Coombes, Andrea; Ring, Hannah; Hunt, Kelsey; Rothbard, Victoria; Holla, Chinmaya
    The papers in this special issue describe evaluations of the scaling journey of five different education programmes operating in humanitarian crises. This introduction first presents the research context for these evaluations followed by a synthesis of the overarching barriers and facilitators to scaling across three domains: (1) context, (2) business model, and (3) advocacy and ownership based on a qualitative synthesis. The synthesis showed that implementers often started multiple pilot projects in different contexts rather than scaling-up in one context. We also present a summary of impacts on learning outcomes from impact evaluations of three of the five education programmes.
  • Publication
    Regional Convergence in Bangladesh Using Night Lights (Published online: 10 Jul 2022)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-10-12) Basher, Syed Abul; Rashid, Salim; Uddin, Mohammad Riad
    We analyse economic convergence across 64 districts of Bangladesh using newly harmonized satellite night light data over 1992–2018. The growth in night lights – taken as a proxy for regional economic activity – reveals overwhelming evidence of absolute convergence. Regional differences in night light (or income) growth have been shrinking at an annual convergence rate of 4.57%, corresponding to a half-life of 15 years. Net migration plays a relatively prominent role in the regional convergence process.
  • Publication
    Siting Priorities for Congestion-Reducing Projects in Dhaka: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Traffic Congestion, Travel Times, Air Pollution, and Exposure Vulnerability
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-08-30) Dasgupta, Susmita; Wheeler, David; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Huq, Mainul
    Traffic congestion increases travel time and is a major source of pollution and health damage in developing-country cities. Data scarcity frequently confines traffic improvement projects to sites where congestion can be easily measured. This article uses spatiotemporal data from new global sources to revisit the siting problem in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where local congestion measures are augmented by estimates of citywide travel time, pollution exposure, and pollution vulnerability. We combine Google Traffic data with an econometric model linking traffic, pollution readings from a local monitoring station, and weather data to estimate the spatial distribution of vehicular pollution. We explore pollution-vulnerability implications by incorporating spatial distributions of poor households, children, and the elderly. Using the Open Source Routing Machine and OpenStreetMaps, we estimate systemwide travel-time gains from reducing congestion at each point in a grid covering the Dhaka metro area. We find a large divergence of siting priorities in single-dimensional exercises that focus exclusively on local congestion, citywide travel time, vehicular pollution, or vulnerable-resident pollution exposure. By implication, optimal siting requires a social objective function with explicit weights assigned to each of the four dimensions. The new global information sources permit extending this multidimensional approach to many cities throughout the developing world.
  • Publication
    Mobile Phones, Household Welfare and Women's Empowerment: Evidence from Rural Off-grid Regions of Bangladesh
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04) Hossain, Monzur; Samad, Hussain
    Using household survey data from off-grid regions of rural Bangladesh, this study attempts to assess the impacts of mobile phone use on household welfare and women’s empowerment. Using two propensity score-based weighted regressions (IPW and AIPW), this study finds that mobile phone use increases household income (3 to 10 percent) from different sources, such as small businesses and remittances; improves women’s empowerment; and facilitates consumption smoothing during periods of shocks. Thus, favorable policies on investment in mobile telephone technologies, tariffs on talk time and internet usage, and mobile innovations, such as mobile financial services could reduce communication bottlenecks and digital divide in rural lagging regions that will help achieve a balanced regional development. Simultaneously, policies to avoid adverse impact of mobile phone usage should also be in place.
  • Publication
    Water and Sanitation in Dhaka Slums: Access, Quality, and Informality in Service Provision
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-07-16) Haque, Sabrina; Yanez-Pagans, Monica; Arias-Granada, Yurani; Joseph, George
    Slum populations are commonly characterized to have poorly developed water and sanitation systems and speculated to access services through informal channels. However, there are limited representative profiles of water and sanitation services in slums, making it difficult to prioritize interventions that will make services safer for residents. This cross-sectional study examines quality and provision of access to water and sanitation services in government slums across Dhaka, Bangladesh. Access is overall high but is subject to quality issues related to safety, reliability, and liability. Services are often operated by informal middlemen at various stages of provision.
  • Publication
    Measuring Deprivations in the Slums of Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-06-10) Patel, Amit; Joseph, George; Shrestha, Anne; Foint, Yaeli
    Approximately 880 million people, or one in four urban residents, live in slums today. While this enumeration is useful, it is not a trivial exercise to estimate slum population for a city, let alone globally, especially when the definition of a slum remains a debatable construct. To demonstrate this point empirically, we utilize a household survey from nine cities in Bangladesh and provide three different estimates of slum population based on three distinct definitions. We use a contextual definition that was adapted by the Government of Bangladesh, and two universal definitions that were adapted by the international development community. Two of the universal definitions were proposed to track progress on the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals, respectively. By applying these different definitions to the same data, we found that the Bangladeshi Government’s definition provides slum population estimates that are far lower compared to those when we apply the definitions provided by the international development community. Such underestimation could misguide policymakers who want to know the extent of the policy problem, influence what kind of policy solutions will be pursued, and directly affect how these solutions will be targeted to respective populations.
  • Publication
    Cities, Slums, and Child Nutrition in Bangladesh
    (Wiley, 2018-11-09) Raju, Dhushyanth; Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Govindaraj, Ramesh
    This study uses novel household survey data that are representative of Bangladesh's large cities, and of slum and non-slum areas within the cities, to investigate the effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors on child nutrition status in 2013. The study also decomposes the difference in mean child nutrition status between slum and non-slum areas in 2013, and the increase in mean child nutrition status in slum and non-slum areas from 2006 to 2013. Mother's education attainment and household wealth largely explain the cross‐sectional difference and intertemporal change in mean child nutrition status. Although positive in some cases, the effects of maternal and child health services, and potential health‐protective household amenities, on child nutrition status differ by the type of health facility, household amenity, and urban area (slum or non-slum). Focusing on nutrition‐sensitive programs for slum residents and the urban poor is consistent with the results. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions.
  • Publication
    Do Sanitation Improvements Reduce Fecal Contamination of Water, Hands, Food, Soil, and Flies? Evidence from a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh
    (American Chemical Society, 2018-09-26) Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Kwong, Laura H.; Mertens, Andrew; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Hubbard, Alan E.; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Rahman, Mohamed Zahidur; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Unicomb, Leanne; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ram, Pavani K.; Clasen, Thomas; Luby, Stephen P.; Colford, John M., Jr.
    Sanitation improvements have had limited effectiveness in reducing the spread of fecal pathogens into the environment. We conducted environmental measurements within a randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh that implemented individual and combined water treatment, sanitation, handwashing (WSH) and nutrition interventions (WASH Benefits, NCT01590095). Following approximately 4 months of intervention, we enrolled households in the trial’s control, sanitation and combined WSH arms to assess whether sanitation improvements, alone and coupled with water treatment and handwashing, reduce fecal contamination in the domestic environment. We quantified fecal indicator bacteria in samples of drinking and ambient waters, child hands, food given to young children, courtyard soil and flies. In the WSH arm, Escherichia coli prevalence in stored drinking water was reduced by 62% (prevalence ratio = 0.38 (0.32, 0.44)) and E. coli concentration by 1-log (Δlog10 = −0.88 (−1.01, −0.75)). The interventions did not reduce E. coli along other sampled pathways. Ambient contamination remained high among intervention households. Potential reasons include noncommunity-level sanitation coverage, child open defecation, animal fecal sources, or naturalized E. coli in the environment. Future studies should explore potential threshold effects of different levels of community sanitation coverage on environmental contamination.
  • Publication
    Fecal Indicator Bacteria along Multiple Environmental Transmission Pathways (Water, Hands, Food, Soil, Flies) and Subsequent Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh
    (American Chemical Society, 2018-06-14) Pickering, Amy J.; Ercumen, Ayse; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Kwong, Laura H.; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullman, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Colford, John M., Jr.; Luby, Stephen P.
    Enteric pathogens can be transmitted through multiple environmental pathways, yet little is known about the relative contribution of each pathway to diarrhea risk among children. We aimed to identify fecal transmission pathways in the household environment associated with prospectively measured child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. We measured the presence and levels of Escherichia coli in tube wells, stored drinking water, pond water, child hand rinses, courtyard soil, flies, and food in 1843 households. Gastrointestinal symptoms among children ages 0–60 months were recorded concurrently at the time of environmental sample collection and again a median of 6 days later. Incident diarrhea (3 or more loose stools in a 24-h period) was positively associated with the concentration of E. coli on child hands measured on the first visit (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.23, 95% CI 1.06, 1.43 for a log10 increase), while other pathways were not associated. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no associations between concurrently measured environmental contamination and diarrhea. Our findings suggest higher levels of E. coli on child hands are strongly associated with subsequent diarrheal illness rates among children in rural Bangladesh.
  • Publication
    Optima Nutrition: An Allocative Efficiency Tool to Reduce Childhood Stunting by Better Targeting of Nutrition-Related Interventions
    (Springer, 2018-03-20) Pearson, Ruth; Killedar, Madhura; Petravic, Janka; Kakietek, Jakub J.; Scott, Nick; Grantham, Kelsey L.; Stuart, Robyn M.; Kedziora, David J.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Shekar, Meera; Wilson, David P.
    Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets for nutritional interventions mean that available resources must be targeted in the most cost-effective manner to have the greatest impact. Quantitative tools can help guide budget allocation decisions.