Journal articles published externally

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These are journal articles by World Bank authors published externally.

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Funding Dam Safety Regulation: An International Comparative Analysis and Example Application in Australia (Published online: 27 Aug 2022)

2023-08-11, Pisaniello, John D., Wishart, Marcus J., Lyon, Kimberley N., García, Esteban Boj

Dam failures that cause significant adverse downstream impacts continue to occur globally. Hence, effective, adequately resourced dam safety regulation is critical for the safety of dams and downstream communities. This paper explores options for regulatory funding and resourcing according to a selected set of relevant key factors along a continuum of dam safety assurance. An international comparative analysis of 15 jurisdictional case studies against the key factors identifies trends representing indicative precedents. A procedure is developed to help identify increasingly relevant precedents for guiding target jurisdictions on potentially suitable options. Illustrative application to a real case in Australia is provided.

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Gender Biases in Resettlement Processes in Vietnam: Examining Women's Participation and Implications for Impact Assessment

2021-07-18, Nghia, Nguyen Quy, Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh, Hang, Do Thi Le

The impacts of development-induced resettlement disproportionately affect women, as they frequently face more difficulties than men to cope with disruption and changes. Women’s situation might further deteriorate if there is no mechanism for affected households to enjoy meaningful participation and consultation in the resettlement process. This paper is the result of policy analysis, project implementation experience, and findings of a cross-sectional survey of 876 affected households in Vietnam. We examine women's participation in resettlement processes in large infrastructure projects in Vietnam. The survey findings revealed the limited participation of women in the resettlement processes from all perspectives (meeting attendance, resettlement implementation, and making decisions) at community and household levels. Gender-stereotyped prejudice from community members and the gender-ascribed household division of labor were key factors inhibiting women’s meaningful participation. The paper also discusses the implications of the findings for impact assessment practice. We call for a shift in how resettlement is prepared and implemented towards a more comprehensive and gender-informed approach, with a view to making affected people genuine beneficiaries of resettlement programs.

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What Drives Utilization of Primary Care Facilities? Evidence from a National Facility Survey

2021, Vu, Lan T.H., Bales, Sarah, Bredenkamp, Caryn

This analysis aims to assess the association between commune health station (CHS) service availability/readiness and health service utilization. Data from the 2015 Vietnam District and Commune Health Facility Survey was used to build a series of multivariate negative binomial regressions to measure the association between domains of service availability/readiness and CHS's average number of visits per capita. Three domains of service availability/readiness are significantly associated with higher utilization rates: health infrastructure, basic equipment availability, and capacity to deliver services for non-communicable diseases. If all three modifiable CHS characteristics were to be improved from their current level, the predicted utilization rate of the CHS would be 3.3–3.7 times as high as current levels. Investments in improving facility infrastructure, making available essential equipment items, and enabling the CHS to provide hypertension and diabetes services would all likely increase health service utilization at CHS level.

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Joint Roles of Parenting and Nutritional Status for Child Development: Evidence from Rural Cambodia

2019-05-31, Berkes, Jan, Raikes, Abbie, Bougen, Adrien, Filmer, Deon

Substantial work has demonstrated that early nutrition and home environments, including the degree to which children receive cognitive stimulation and emotional support from parents, play a profound role in influencing early childhood development. Yet, less work has documented the joint influences of parenting and nutritional status on child development among children in the preschool years living in low‐income countries. Using panel data from 2016 to 2017 on the parenting, nutritional status, and early developmental outcomes (executive function, language, early numeracy, and socioemotional problems) of 6,508 Cambodian children ages 3–5 years, our findings demonstrate that inequities in early development associated with family wealth are evident at age 3 and increase among children ages 4 and 5 years. Using hierarchical regression analysis, a significant share of these inequalities is explained by differences in parenting and early nutritional status, measured by stunting. Better‐educated parents engage in more stimulating and supportive parenting practices. However, the positive association between parenting and language and early numeracy outcomes is 35–54% stronger for non‐stunted children, and parental activities explain only about 8–14% of the cognitive gap between the lowest and highest wealth quintiles. The results highlight the need for additional research outlining interactions between environmental factors that link family wealth and child development. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions. https://authorservices.wiley.com/author-resources/Journal-Authors/licensing/self-archiving.html

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The value of lost output and cost of illness of noncommunicable diseases in the Pacific

2022-12-01, Hou, Xiaohui, Burton-Mckenzie, Ethan-John

The Pacific Island Countries face some of the highest rates of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs). This study estimates the economic costs of NCDs for each year from 2015 to 2040, focusing on eleven Pacific Island nations. Data and Methods: two methods were used to estimate the mortality and morbidity costs using a ‘value of lost output’ and ‘cost of illness’ approach respectively. Results: Five results stand out in terms of projected economic costs of NCD mortality and morbidity analyses in the Pacific: (i) the economic burden of NCDs in the Pacific is greater than expected for middle‐income countries; (ii) although cardiovascular disease is the biggest contributor to the mortality burden in the region, diabetes plays a far greater role in the Pacific countries compared to the global average; (iii) the economic burden of NCDs is increasing with time, especially as incomes rise; (iv) the biggest driver of lost output is the potential loss of labor due to early death from NCDs; and (v) the cost of illness due to diabetes is high across the Pacific countries, with highest among the Polynesian countries. NCDs alone can put enormous threat to the small Pacific economies. Targeted interventions to reduce disease prevalence, as outlined in the Pacific NCDs Roadmap, are vital to reduce the long-term costs associated with NCD mortality and morbidity.

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Can We Rely on VIIRS Nightlights to Estimate the Short-Term Impacts of Natural Hazards? Evidence from Five South East Asian Countries

2021-02-03, Skoufia, Emmanuel, Strobl, Eric, Tveit, Thomas

This paper utilizes Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nightlights to model damage caused by earthquakes, floods and typhoons in five South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). For each type of hazard we examine the extent to which there is a difference in nightlight intensity between affected and non-affected cells based on (i) case studies of specific hazards; and (ii) fixed effect regression models akin to the double difference method to determine any effect that the different natural hazards might have had on the nightlight value. The VIIRS data has some shortcomings with regards to noise, seasonality and volatility that we try to correct for with new statistical methods. The results show little to no significance regardless of the methodology used. Possible explanations for the lack of significance could be underlying noise in the nightlight data and measurements or lack of measurements due to cloud cover. Overall, given the lack of consistency in the results, even though efforts were made to decrease volatility and remove noise, we conclude that researchers should be careful when analyzing natural hazard impacts with the help of VIIRS nightlights.

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Land Asset Securitization: An Innovative Approach to Distinguish between Benefit-sharing and Compensation in Hydropower Development

2020-08-08, Shi, Guoqing, Shang, Kai

Development Project (DP) is creating the benefits for all and taking benefit-sharing (BS) as a goal. BS involves paying something above the fair market compensation or replacement value of the assets lost in the displacement and resettlement. BS becomes more important and complicated when the lost assets are not transacted as commodities in a market. BS is a key to resolve the challenges on impoverishment caused development induced displacement and resettlement globally. An innovated BS approach and methodology for land asset securitization (LAS) is proposed. It takes occupied lands as capital investment in the DP rather than for displaced assets’ compensation only based on natural resources transfer theory. LAS takes the approach in lands resourcing, land resources capitalization and land assets securitization. It establishes the mechanism to arrange additional benefits for resettlers. It enables rural resettlers to receive appropriate compensation to sustain basic livelihoods at the DP construction and early commercial operation stage as well as share profits equally during full operation. LAS will prevent either the hydropower developer or the government from having interests in securitized assets. LAS is a sustainable approach to promote win-win among resettlers, developers, governments, and civil society.

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Improving Services for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in Samoa: An Implementation Research Study Using the Care Cascade Framework

2021-07-26, Fraser-Hurt, Nicole, Naseri, Leausa Take, Thomsen, Robert, Matalavea, Athena, Ieremia-Faasili, Victoria, Reupena, Muagatutia Sefuiva, Hawley, Nicola L., Pomer, Alysa, Rivara, Anna C., Obure, Dayo Carol, Zhang, Zhang

Samoa needs to intensify the response to the growing non-communicable disease burden. This study aimed to assess bottlenecks in the care continuum and identify possible solutions. The mixed-methods study used the cascade framework as an analysis tool and hypertension as a tracer condition for chronic non-communicable diseases. Household survey data were integrated with medical record data of hypertension patients and results from focus group discussions with patients and healthcare providers. Hypertension prevalence was 38.1% but only 4.7% of hypertensive individuals had controlled blood pressure. There were large gaps in the care continuum especially at screening and referral due to multiple socio-cultural, economic and service delivery constraints. In Samoa, care for chronic non-communicable diseases is not effectively addressing patient needs. This calls for better health communication, demand creation, treatment support, nutritional interventions and health service redesign, with a focus on primary healthcare and effective patient and community engagement.

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Contrasting Experiences: Understanding the Longer-Term Impact of Improving Access to Pre-Primary Education in Rural Indonesia

2021-02-02, Hasan, Amer, Kinnell, Angela, Maika, Amelia, Nakajima, Nozomi, Pradhan, Menno

This paper examines the child development outcomes of two cohorts of children who were exposed to the same intervention at different points in time. One cohort was eligible to access playgroups during the first year of a five-year project cycle, beginning at age four. The other cohort became eligible to access these services during the third year of a five-year project cycle, beginning at age three. The younger cohort was more likely to be exposed to playgroups for longer and at more age-appropriate times relative to the older cohort. The paper finds that enrollment rates and enrollment duration in preprimary education increased for both cohorts, but the enrollment effects were larger for the younger cohort. In terms of child development outcomes, there were short-term effects at age five that did not last until age eight, for both cohorts. Moreover, the younger cohort had substantially higher test scores during the early grades of primary school, relative to the older cohort. We document the extent to which program impacts can vary as a result of differences in project implementation.

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Supporting Pathways to Prosperity in Forest Landscapes – A PRIME Framework

2019-08-07, Shyamsundar, Priya, Ahlroth, Sofia, Kristjanson, Patricia, Onder, Stefanie

We develop a framework to conceptualize the multiple ways forests contribute to poverty reduction and inform development interventions in forest landscapes. We identify five key strategies for reducing poverty in forest landscapes: a) improvements in productivity (P) of forest land and labor; b) governance reform to strengthen community, household and women’s rights (R) over forests and land; c) investments (I) in institutions, infrastructure and public services that facilitate forest-based entrepreneurship; d) increased access to markets (M) for timber or non-timber forest products; and e) mechanisms that enhance and enable the flow of benefits from forest ecosystem services (E) to the poor. We test the utility of the framework through a review of the forestry portfolio of the World Bank Group, the largest public investor in forestry. Many of these projects include several, but not all, PRIME components. We devote particular attention to forest-related investments in two contrasting countries, Vietnam and Mexico, to examine synergies among the pathways. Results suggest that each strategy in the PRIME framework may play an important role in alleviating poverty, but pronounced impacts may require multiple pathways to be jointly pursued. The PRIME framework can guide research to address knowledge gaps on pathways to prosperity in forest landscapes, serve as an easily remembered checklist for managers, and nudge forest program designers in government and development organizations, who are interested in poverty reduction, to focus on the importance of both a comprehensive framework and synergies across different pathways.