Journal articles published externally

2,071 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

These are journal articles by World Bank authors published externally.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    An Evaluation of the Feedback Loops in the Poverty Focus of World Bank Operations
    (Elsevier, 2018-04) Fardoust, Shahrokh; Kanbur, Ravi; Luo, Xubei; Sundberg, Mark
    The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This paper, based on an evaluation conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank Group, examines how, and how well, the Bank uses feedback loops to enhance the poverty focus of its operations. Feedback loops are important for every element of the results chain running from data, to diagnostics, to strategy formulation and finally to strategy implementation. The evaluation uses a range of instruments, including surveys of stakeholders and World Bank staff, focus group meetings, country case studies and systematic reviews of Bank lending and non-lending operations. We find that while the Bank generates useful information on poverty reduction from its projects and programs, the feedback loops – from outcomes to data analysis to diagnostics to strategy formulation and implementation – have generally been weak, with sizable variation across countries.
  • Publication
    Why is Absenteeism Low among Public Health Workers in Lao PDR?
    (Taylor and Francis, 2012-10-12) Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Luo, Xubei
    Absenteeism among public health workers is common in developing countries. Absence rates among public health workers are above 25 per cent in the five developing countries that Chaudhury et al. (N. Chaudhury, J. Hammer, M. Kremer, K. Muralidharan, and F.H. Rogers (2006) Missing in action: Teacher and health worker absence in developing countries. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20, pp. 91–116) examined. However, the present study finds that the corresponding rate in Lao PDR is significantly lower (17%). Using a new dataset from the Lao PDR Public Expenditure Tracking Survey, we find that both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation affect health centre worker behaviour: the timely payment of wages, a nonrural workplace and proximity of the workplace to hometown are factors that are negatively associated with absenteeism.
  • Publication
    The Impact of Migration on Rural Poverty and Inequality : A Case Study in China
    (2010) Zhu, Nong; Luo, Xubei
    Large numbers of agricultural labor moved from the countryside to cities after the economic reforms in China. Migration and remittances play an important role in transforming the structure of rural household income. This article examines the impact of rural-to-urban migration on rural poverty and inequality in a mountainous area of Hubei province using the data of a 2002 household survey. Since migration income is a potential substitute for farm income, we present counterfactual scenarios of what rural income, poverty, and inequality would have been in the absence of migration. Our results show that, by providing alternatives to households with lower marginal labor productivity in agriculture, migration leads to an increase in rural income. In contrast to many studies that suggest that the increasing share of nonfarm income in total income widens inequality, this article offers support for the hypothesis that migration tends to have egalitarian effects on rural income for three reasons: (1) migration is rational self-selection--farmers with higher expected return in agricultural activities and/or in local nonfarm activities choose to remain in the countryside while those with higher expected return in urban nonfarm sectors migrate; (2) households facing binding constraints of land supply are more likely to migrate; (3) poorer households benefit disproportionately from migration.
  • Publication
    Income Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction : A Case Study of Eight Provinces in China
    (2009) Goh, Chor-ching; Luo, Xubei; Zhu, Nong
    This paper examines the growth performance and income inequality in eight Chinese provinces during the period of 1989-2004 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. It shows that income grew for all segments of the population, and as a result, poverty incidence has fallen. However, income growth has been uneven, most rapidly in coastal areas, and among the educated. A decomposition analysis based on household income determination suggests that income growth can largely be attributed to the increase in returns to education and to the shift of employment into secondary and tertiary sectors.