C. Journal articles published externally

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These are journal articles by World Bank authors published externally.
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    Teacher Satisfaction and Its Determinants: Analysis Based on Data from Nigeria and Uganda
    (Taylor and Francis, 2022-01-28) Nkengne, Patrick ; Pieume, Olivier ; Tsimpo, Clarence ; Ezeugwu, Gilbert ; Wodon, Quentin
    Teachers who are satisfied with their job are more likely to teach well, which in turn should enable their students to better learn while in school. Sub-Saharan Africa is currently experiencing a learning crisis, with close to nine out of ten children not able to read and understand a simple text at age 10. This affects all types of schools and students, including students in Catholic and other faith-based schools. Improving working conditions and job satisfaction among teachers is part of the answer to this learning crisis. After a brief discussion of data for Nigeria, this article looks at the level of satisfaction of teachers in Uganda, its determinants, and its impact on the quality teaching. Specifically, four questions are asked: What is the level of teacher job satisfaction in Uganda? How does job satisfaction relate to the characteristics of teachers? What is the impact of teachers’ satisfaction on their performance, as it can be measured through various variables of teacher effort? Finally, what are the main factors affecting satisfaction according to teachers? The answers to these questions have implications for policy and practice in faith-based as well as in other schools.
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    Relationships between Christian Schools and the State: A Comparative Analysis for Five sub-Saharan African Countries
    (Taylor and Francis, 2022-01-28) Scheunpfluga, Annette ; Wenz, Mark ; Rubindamayugi, Mimii Brown ; Lutswambac, Jean Kasereka ; Njobatid, Frederick ; Nyiramanae, Christine ; Mutabazi, Samuel ; Njoyaf, Claude Ernest ; Raharijaonag, Onja ; Wodonh, Quentin
    This article provides a comparative analysis of Christian faith-based schooling in five African countries, including data on the proportions of faith-based schools, financing models, and forms of organization vis-à-vis the state. The case studies represent different forms and models. In all of the countries, at least one in six schools is run by a church. Christian churches do not see themselves as ‘private schools’ but as public providers working for the public common good. Faith-based schools contribute not only to making sure that children go to school and learn while in school, but also to sharing ideals ranging from social justice and equity, to peace and democracy, and social participation and inclusion. The article concludes with some reflections on future challenges for faith-based schools, mainly related to their funding and the lack of data to assess challenges and opportunities.
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    Catholic and Faith-Based Schools in Africa: Introduction to the Special Issue
    (Taylor and Francis, 2022-01-28) Grace, Gerald ; Wodon, Quentin
    Africa is the region of the world where Catholic and other faith-based schools have the largest footprint. One in nine students in a primary school in Africa is enrolled in a Catholic school, and students from the region account for more than half of all students in Catholic primary schools globally. Through the role it plays in Africa, the Catholic Church is at the forefront of providing educational opportunities in low-income countries, but challenges abound. In particular, learning poverty defined as the inability of 10-year-old children to read and understand an age-appropriate text, affects nine in ten children in sub-Saharan Africa. Students in Catholic schools are not immune to this crisis. This article introduces a framework from the World Bank on how we could end the learning crisis and summarizes the contributions of the articles included in this issue in terms of that framework.
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    Not All Catholic Schools Are Private Schools: Does It Matter for Student Performance?
    (Taylor and Francis, 2022-01-28) Wodon, Quentin ; Tsimpo, Clarence
    National student assessments from Uganda suggest low levels of proficiency for students in primary and secondary schools. This is confirmed by data for primary schools from the 2013 Service Delivery Indicators survey. The data are used in this article to conduct an assessment of factors affecting student performance. A unique feature of the data is that comparisons can be made not only between public and private schools, but also between Catholic and non-Catholic schools, with most of the Catholic schools being public schools. The analysis looks at student performance on tests for English, numeracy, non-verbal reasoning, and the student’s overall score for the three dimensions combined. Explanatory factors include a wide range of school, teacher, child, and community characteristics. After controlling for these factors, students in private schools, Catholic or not, tend to perform better than those in public schools, Catholic or not. By contrast, differences between Catholic and non-Catholic schools, especially when the schools are public, appear to matter less for student performance.
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    Are New Secondary Schools Built Where They Are Needed Most in Uganda? Comparing Catholic with Public and Other Private Schools
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-16) Wodon, Quentin
    Low income countries in sub-Saharan Africa are confronted with a major challenge in terms of expanding access to secondary education. This is also the case in Uganda. This article considers two questions. First, where should new secondary schools be built if the aim is to reduce geographic disparities in access? Second, have new schools, and in particular faith-based schools, been built in the areas that need schools the most? The analysis considers Catholic as well as public and other private schools. Results suggest that new schools are often not located in the areas that need them the most.
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    How Well Do Catholic and Other Faith-based Schools Serve the Poor? A Study with Special Reference to Africa: Part II -- Learning
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-02-06) Wodon, Quentin
    This paper is the second in a set of two on the extent to which Catholic and other faith-based schools are serving the poor well. Catholic and other faith-based schools reach millions of children who live in poverty, yet this does not necessarily mean that they are serving these children well enough. The paper considers two separate issues. First, beyond academic subjects, Catholic and other faith-based schools emphasize learning related to values and religion. Do they succeed in doing so? Based on small sample survey data and qualitative fieldwork, as well as broader data on parental satisfaction with schools, the paper provides a tentative and mostly positive answer to this question, at least from the view of parents. The second issue is where performance is weaker. Education systems are affected by a learning crisis in the developing world. All schools should ensure that students learn, but too often this is not the case. The second part of the paper documents this learning crisis and the fact that Catholic and other faith-based schools are not immune to it. This is done in part through a rapid review of the recent World Development Report on education's promise, and a companion piece for sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates of performance for selected African countries are also provided. The results are sobering: too many children are not learning while in school. Finally, the paper briefly summarizes evidence from the literature on interventions that could improve learning, including in Catholic and faith-based schools.
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    Implications of Demographic, Religious, and Enrollment Trends for the Footprint of Faith-Based Schools Globally
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-25) Wodon, Quentin
    Faith-based schools play an important role today in the provision of education globally. Are the schools likely to continue to play such a role in the future? If so, where is that role likely to be most prominent? This paper considers these questions on the basis of long-term demographic, religious, and school enrollment trends. The trends suggest that enrollment in faith-based schools will continue to grow rapidly, as has been the case over the last few decades. But there will also be a fundamental shift, with a rising concentration of students in faith-based schools located in Africa. This may have implications given the learning crisis affecting the continent.
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    Symposium on Catholic Schools and the Changing Global Landscape for Faith-Based Education: An Introduction
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-25) Wodon, Quentin
    Despite the fact that faith-based schools serve tens of millions of students (the estimate for the Catholic Church is at 62 million students enrolled in K12 schools globally in 2016), the role of faith-based schools remains largely ignored in policy discussions. The articles and essays in this symposium aim to inform current debates on the role of faith-based schools, and particularly Catholic schools. The focus on Catholic schools is driven by the fact that they are the largest network of faith-based schools globally. It is clear however that many issues faced by Catholic schools are also faced by other faith-based schools.
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    Measuring the Contribution of Faith-Based Schools to Human Capital Wealth: Estimates for the Catholic Church
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-25) Wodon, Quentin
    This paper provides estimates of the contribution of faith-based schools to human capital wealth using recent World Bank data. Wealth is the assets base that enables nations to generate future income. Estimates suggest that human capital wealth accounts for two thirds of global wealth, a much larger proportion than natural capital and produced capital. This paper’s analysis relies on an assessment of the share of human capital wealth attributed to educational attainment, and the share of contribution of Catholic schools to educational attainment. The analysis suggests that Catholic schools contribute at least US$ 12 trillion to the changing wealth of nations.
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    How Well Do Catholic and Other Faith-Based Schools Serve the Poor? A Study with Special Reference to Africa: Part I -- Schooling
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-22) Wodon, Quentin
    Serving the poor is a prime component of the mission of Catholic and many other faith-based schools. Do the schools succeed in doing so? This paper and a companion paper focusing on learning aim to answer this question. In this paper, the focus is on schooling or enrolment in school. The paper considers first global and regional data on the number of students in Catholic preschools and nurseries, primary schools, and secondary schools. The data suggest that Catholic schools are located proportionately more in low-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, having schools in low income countries does not guarantee that they serve disadvantaged children. Relying on household survey data from Africa, the second part of the analysis suggests that while Catholic and other faith-based schools reach many children in poverty, they often serve children from better off households proportionately more. The last part of the paper considers the constraints faced by Catholic and other faith-based schools in reaching the poor. Some constraints are shared with other types of schools, but others are peculiar to Catholic and faith-based schools, especially in terms of the funding from households that they need to operate given no or only limited state support.