Other ESW Reports

289 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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  • Publication
    Global Labor Database User Manual: A Guide to Understanding, Using, and Interacting with the Global Labor Database
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-29) World Bank
    The Global Labor Database (GLD) is part of the World Bank initiatives to harmonize labor force surveys and household surveys with a relevant labor module. Its mission is to create an open and transparent harmonization with sufficient background information to allow data analysts to use, alter, and expand the harmonization. In this sense, background information goes beyond code, questionnaires, and reports, and includes documenting survey details learned during harmonization which are not recorded elsewhere. An example of this documenting changes to the currency or the administrative divisions. The GLD aims to be an open-source database, meaning that as much information should be accessible to as many people as possible. It also strives to be transparent, making all steps that create the harmonization traceable, from raw data acquisition to harmonized variable coding. Hence, all steps of the harmonization process are documented and made available, including the survey documentation, code and notes that allow users to fully comprehend the survey design and the choices made in the harmonization. The availability of the codes and documentation enables users to customize and add variables not in the GLD harmonization. Most harmonization efforts provide users with a take it or leave it option, but the GLD's open and transparent approach allows users to trace and deviate from the standard harmonization at any point, giving them a head start regardless of where they wish to jump in. Finally, the GLD follows up and expands on the previous initiative to harmonized household surveys, the International Income Distribution Database (I2D2). The I2D2 was superseded by the Global Monitoring Database (GMD), which however focused on household budget surveys and did not harmonize labor force surveys. The GLD was created to remedy this gap in the survey type coverage and complement it, with a stronger focus on labor market information through an expanded dictionary and more rigorous validation of labor indicators.
  • Publication
    The Knowledge Compact for Action: Transforming Ideas Into Development Impact - For a World Free of Poverty on a Livable Planet
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-07) World Bank
    Today’s global challenges are bigger, more complex, and more intertwined than ever before, from the relentless grip of poverty and stubborn persistence of inequality to the devastations caused by climate disasters, fragility, pandemics, and conflicts. Financing and investments alone cannot solve these problems in a global context of higher debt and scarce resources. Now more than ever, clients are demanding innovative ideas and successful experiences from other countries to tackle the ongoing and emerging global crises, regain the development progress of past decades and move faster towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. At the same time, recent breakthroughs in technology, including the rapid advances in artificial intelligence, offer enormous potential to revolutionize development work. Policymakers and practitioners across the globe are poised to benefit from new tools to innovate, act based on evidence and accelerate the transformation of new ideas into development outcomes that improve lives of the poor. This paper articulates the strategic direction of the Knowledge Compact for Action, which seeks to empower all WBG clients, public and private, by systematically making the latest development knowledge available to respond more effectively to increasingly complex development challenges. The Compact seizes the opportunity of the digital revolution, bringing together the wealth of data analytics, research and best practices accumulated by the WBG over decades and combining this knowledge with the WBG’s proven mix of public-private finance to power learning and innovative solutions. This includes capturing the tacit knowledge embedded in operations for policymakers and development practitioners to easily access lessons of development successes and failures in other countries. Ultimately, the Compact aims to take knowledge to a new level, placing it front and center of the WBG’s work to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity on a livable planet.
  • Publication
    Digital Conglomerates in East Asia: Navigating Competition Policy Challenges
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-02) World Bank
    Competition increases productivity boosting innovation and economic growth. Competition fosters cost reductions, innovation and promotes productivity growth. This paper reviews global and regional trends on conglomeration in digital markets, especially through mergers and acquisitions. In recent years, the landscape of business consolidation has undergone a transformative shift, driven by the convergence of digital innovation and traditional commerce. This paper delves into the intriguing trends surrounding conglomeration in both digital and brick-and-mortar spheres, exploring their implications on a regional and global scale. With diverse models intertwining digital and traditional conglomerates, the strategies employed for consolidation have showcased remarkable diversity. However, at the forefront emerges the prominent strategy of conglomerate mergers, which amalgamate distinct business dimensions under a single corporate umbrella. Thus, this study investigates the readiness of competition authorities and sector-specific regulators to effectively address the intricate challenges posed by such mergers. In this context, policy reforms emerge as a focal point, aimed at bolstering regulatory frameworks to foster fair competition, innovation, and consumer protection in an era of rapid conglomerate digitalization.
  • Publication
    Diversification through the Application of the Co-evolutionary Framework: Korea and Viet Nam
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-28) World Bank
    This research examines the diversification process by conceptualizing a co-evolutionary framework linking production and technology. The study applies the framework to retrospectively explain Korea’s successful diversification path and to Viet Nam to identify how the country could further diversify into complex and value-added products. The authors apply relatedness analysis leveraging patent and trade data and present four different types of diversification patterns, namely unrelated diversification, production-based diversification, technology-based diversification, and complex diversification. Developed countries including Korea shifted toward technology-based or complex diversification strategies as their economies developed. Using a simulated scenario approach, the report outlines potential future trajectories wherein Viet Nam attains technological capabilities. The result shows that Viet Nam can diversify into 233 products if it accumulates capabilities in the 12 identified technologies. The report concludes with policy lessons that could inform policy makers in Viet Nam as well as other developing economies. Namely, that the country would need to invest more intensively in technology and capabilities upgrading to diversify into new complex products and evolve its diversification strategy alongside its economic growth and capability building process.
  • Publication
    The Future of Work: Implications for Equity and Growth in Europe
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Dalvit, Nicolò; De Hoyos, Rafael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Pantelaiou, Ioanna; Torre, Iván
    This report aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between technology, economic growth, and equity by analyzing the impact of technological progress on firm-level productivity, market concentration, and labor market outcomes of workers with different education levels. The analysis focuses on the effects that technology can have in European Union (EU) member states, addressing two main distributional challenges: (i) an increase in market concentration, with a few large and innovative firms hoarding the benefits of technological progress, and (ii) technological progress exacerbating income differences between highly educated and other workers. These two challenges, and the public policies aiming to address them, will shape the future relationship between technological progress, economic growth, and income distribution in Europe.
  • Publication
    Data Diagnostic for Kerala - Spotlight on Resilience: Action plan based on a rapid diagnostic of data governance in the State of Kerala
    (Washington, D.C., 2023-10-17) World Bank
    The Government of Kerala (GoK) is committed to using data-driven tools and services for resilience and has embarked upon several innovative data programs that address known gaps in the resilience related service delivery architecture and the data ecosystem. The World Bank, through the ongoing Additional Financing for Resilient Kerala Program (P177980) is supporting the GoK in its efforts to use data effectively for resilience towards future disasters. At the invitation of the GoK, a World Bank team conducted a rapid diagnostic of the state of data governance in Kerala. The diagnostic aims to support the GoK in combining data initiatives related to climate change and disaster risk management into an integrated ecosystem of technology products and processes, as well as strengthen institutional mandates by enhancing data governance policies and creating incentives for data sharing. The findings of the rapid diagnostic suggest that a vibrant, innovative, and entrepreneurial data ecosystem for resilience exists within the GoK. The government and its partner agencies have developed and deployed several sophisticated resilience-related, data-driven tools, applications, and platforms. GoK however is unable to derive the full extent of benefits from these applications as most of these initiatives are not underpinned by a common set of standards, methods, and policies, leading to suboptimal citizen user experience and effectiveness. The data diagnostic of the data ecosystem of the State provides global and national benchmarking, identifies gaps and opportunity areas, and recommends five strategic action steps and a number of tactical action steps that GoK can take to strengthen data governance and demonstrate the value of data-driven initiatives. The diagnostic was carried out through secondary research and semi-structured interviews. The diagnostic team thanks the wide range of GoK stakeholders who readily agreed to be interviewed for the study, in particular the Kerala State IT Mission (KSITM) who was the main counterpart in developing the diagnostic.
  • Publication
    The Leaders of the Twin Transition in Asia: Mapping Capabilities through Digital and Green Patents
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-17) World Bank
    This report examines how technology affects digital and green transitions in 128 cities across 17 Asian countries. It identifies cities that lead, follow, or have the potential to develop green and digital technologies using patent data analysis. Relatedness Density maps are produced for each digital and green technology, indicating the level of potential and the relative position each city has to develop Twin Transition technologies. A complementarity indicator is used to identify potential partner cities that can provide complementary capabilities to a city to develop green or digital technology. The analysis finds that digital and green technologies are not necessarily closely associated with each other, though some technologies can be used for both, such as smart grids. Furthermore, digital capabilities affect the development of both digital and green technologies. Based on the findings, the research suggests cities need to consider the relative strengths of their technologies instead of following a 'one-size-fits-all' approach, and cities need to target partners cities that can offer complementary capabilities to enable the green and digital transitions.
  • Publication
    Affordable Devices for All: Innovative Financing Solutions and Policy Options to Bridge Global Digital Divides
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-10) Rami, Amin; Gallegos, Doyle
    Nearly 2.7 billion people globally are still offline and not using the internet. The majority (94 percent) of unconnected individuals live in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of internet-enabled mobile devices remains a key connectivity barrier. This report aims to guide the efforts of policy makers and international financial institutions (IFIs) in promoting affordable mobile device ownership and increasing adoption and usage of broadband services, with a focus on these low-income individuals in developing countries often overlooked by previous research. The report examines the key themes and drivers of costs in the supply and demand for Internet-enabled mobile devices. The report also reviews various financing schemes and opportunities for private capital mobilization that could make it possible for low-income individuals to access a smartphone.
  • Publication
    RWI Phase 3 Report on Regulatory Trends
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-25) World Bank
    The Regulatory Watch Initiative (RWI) is designed as a supplementary tool to aid national administrations in contemplating, analyzing, and drafting policies, laws, and regulations. It can also provide insight on comparative measures to spur Digital Economy growth by informing decision-makers about gaps, trends, and best practices for developing a fully enabling environment and to support the adoption of digital infrastructure for integrated and balanced economic and social development.
  • Publication
    Working Without Borders: The Promise and Peril of Online Gig Work
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-24) Datta, Namita; Rong, Chen; Singh, Sunamika; Stinshoff, Clara; Iacob, Nadina; Nigatu, Natnael Simachew; Nxumalo, Mpumelelo; Klimaviciute, Luka
    Online gig work poses both opportunities and challenges for governments and workers. On the upside, it offers prospects for income generation, especially in developing countries, where most people work in low-productivity, low-quality, often informal jobs. The virtual and often temporary nature of gig work also provides flexibility for often neglected groups such as women, youth, migrants, and people with disabilities. These jobs could be a stepping-stone to bet¬ter-quality jobs for low-skilled workers by helping them learn critical digital skills and close the digital divide. But most gig jobs offer little to no protection for workers, with uncertain income streams and no clear career pathways. Depending on local labor regulations, many gig workers are not protected against unfair practices, abuse or injuries while working. Gig work also raises challenges for managing data security and privacy. The report examines how countries can navigate the promise and perils of online gig work. It reveals that the online gig workforce is much larger than previously assumed with an estimated 154 million to 435 million Online gig workers around the globe. For the first time ever, the report mapped and tracked regional platforms and gig workers who work in languages other than English. Key messages are: • Online gig work is expanding, accounting for up to 12% of the global labor force and is a growing source of income for millions. • Demand for online gig workers is rising faster in developing countries than in industrialized countries. • Local gig platforms play a vital role in the local labor market, but they face challenges in establishing a viable business model, and opportunities for long-term growth. • Online gig work can support inclusion by providing work opportunities for youth, women, and low-skilled workers. • Gig workers, like most other informal sector workers in developing countries, are often outside the purview of labor regulations. • The gig economy can offer opportunities locally to build digital skills, increase income-earning opportunities, and facilitate social protection coverage of informal workers.