Other ESW Reports

275 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Impacts of Covid-19 on the World Bank’s Forest Investment Program Portfolio
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-10) World Bank
    With the COVID-19 pandemic, the development context for the world is fundamentally challenged in many ways. The pandemic has taken a drastic human toll, and its global-scale economic and social impacts affected rural development work focused on the most poor and vulnerable populations. It has also highlighted the increasing need to invest in natural climate solutions that protect and restore critical ecosystems, support climate stability and ecosystem resilience, and help people access livelihood opportunities. This report provides an in-depth portfolio analysis of WB-implemented FIP and DGM projects during the pandemic, gathering information from documents and directly from stakeholders involved in these projects on the impacts of the pandemic during their preparation and implementation, finding trends in delays in project activities, and identifying coping mechanisms used to overcome the challenges resulting from the pandemic. For example, some projects have shifted activities requiring in-person engagement, such as training and workshops, to a virtual format. Other projects use electronic monitoring and data collection tools to follow up on activity implementation. Finally, this report provides a few general lessons for the CIF program, WB-financed operations, donors, and other external international development partners. Although the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a challenge, authors now hope, having already experienced it for roughly three years, to learn from the various adaptation measures implemented by the projects, for application to future shocks.
  • Publication
    Voices from Yemen
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-14) World Bank
    This report highlights respondents’ lived experiences during Yemen’s conflict as experts of their own experiences. This report aims to present the voices of Yemenis who have now spent eight years living through a civil war, economic crisis, and close to famine. This report is among the few authentically capturing Yemeni voices on a range of day-to-day issues from different governorates across the country. But arguably the small sample size limits ability to generalize findings. However, generalizing findings was not the intention of the report. For each theme, 'Voices from Yemen' presents a multi-stakeholder perspective to mitigate bias towards a single stakeholder group or geographical area. Moreover, the report’s findings are in line with those in quantitative reports, such as ‘Surviving in the Times of War’ or the ‘World Bank Phone Survey’ report on food security. ‘Voices from Yemen’ presents a comprehensive picture of suffering derived from human stories behind the statistics. The conflict has made Yemeni lives unaffordable, uncertain, vulnerable, and often unbearable. The power of people’s speech and the intensity of their stories narrate their grave vulnerabilities and the sense of helplessness and suffering the conflict has caused.
  • Publication
    COVID-19 in Solomon Islands - Economic and Social Impacts: Insights from the January-February 2022 Round of High Frequency Phone Surveys
    (Washington, DC, 2022-07) World Bank
    This report focuses on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Solomon Islands. The fourth round of the high frequency phone survey (HFPS) interviewed 2,671 households in January-February 2022 on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19), including employment and income, community trust and security and COVID-19 vaccination. The January-February 2022 round occurred at the onset of the first wave of COVID-19.
  • Publication
    Enhancing Smallholder Incomes by Linking to High Value Markets in Pakistan’s Punjab and Sindh Provinces
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Horst, Alexandra; Watkins, Steven
    The first section of this report reviews the economic transformation underway in Pakistan and its alignment with the development observed in other countries that have also undergone economic change from being primarily agrarian into industrial and service-led economies. The second section provides an overview of Pakistan’s agriculture sector regarding the target commodities and provinces (i.e., fruit and vegetables in Punjab, livestock, and aquaculture in Sindh) and significant trends within the markets of these commodities during the past few years. Past market integration efforts within Pakistan’s agriculture sector, particularly regarding the target commodities, are also discussed in this section. The concluding section provides recommendations based on experiences and lessons learned from previous market linkage interventions. This last section also includes proposed entry points and activities for projects to implement such interventions. An overview of international experiences in collective actions, marketing, and value chain development to promote rural development and increase incomes along agriculture’s supply chains is included in annex one.
  • Publication
    Poverty and Vulnerability in the Ethiopian Lowlands: Building a More Resilient Future
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019) World Bank Group; U.K. Department of International Development
    This study responds to a request in March 2018 by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation (MoFEC), to the World Bank and Department for International Development (DfID) to carry out a study of the lowlands with a view to strengthening the resilience of lowland populations to external shocks. This overview synthesizes the nine self-standing chapters of the report that examine different dimensions of poverty, vulnerability, and resilience to shocks in the Ethiopian lowlands. To identify a policy agenda fostering resilience in the lowlands, the report adopts an analytical framework with three main features. First, the livelihood system of the population in the lowlands is examined in detail for the purpose of providing a better understanding of the patterns of behavior observed and the factors that are associated with the prevalence of poverty at a given point in time and changes in poverty over time. Second, a distinction is made between the poverty status of a household at a given point in time and the vulnerability of a household to poverty, which is about the likelihood of a household being poor in the future. Third, emphasis is placed on understanding the different sources of household vulnerability in the lowlands, how these sources of vulnerability have evolved over time, and how the capacity of households to cope with changes has evolved.
  • Publication
    Linking Gender, Environment, and Poverty for Sustainable Development : A Synthesis Report on Ethiopia and Ghana
    (Washington, DC, 2012-01) World Bank
    Poverty, environment, social development, and gender are important cross-cutting themes of the World Bank and government investment programs, especially within the Sustainable Development Network (SDN). For developing sectoral strategies and programs, economic, environment and social assessments are undertaken, however, these are usually done separately, and most often gender issues are not included. This is a missed opportunity, because joint assessments can map the links between gender, environment, and poverty and help identify approaches that can accelerate the positive synergy and better social/gender, environment, and poverty outcomes; otherwise, the existing negative relationships may slow the development process, and can even lead to unintended results. A joint analysis will also reduce cost of project preparation. This study was undertaken to analyze the links between gender, environment, and poverty; identify approaches; and provide practical suggestions for fostering positive synergies for better outcomes. The analytical framework for this study draws on the World Bank's three pillars of sustainable development: social inclusion, economic growth and environmental sustainability, and from political ecology literature, which highlights how decision-making processes, power relationships, and social conditions influence environmental policies and development outcomes. The following four propositions derived from political ecology literature guide the analysis: i) socioeconomic marginalization and natural resource degradation are mutually reinforcing processes; ii) protected area conservation and external control of natural resources can disrupt household and community production and social organization; iii) competing environmental interests shape environmental change; and iv) collective action and resilience can help mitigate negative impacts. The study is based on in-depth analysis of two sub-Saharan African countries Ethiopia and Ghana. The research methodology was qualitative, and included a series of interrelated analyses: a political ecology literature review, country-specific reviews of literature and data sets, good-practice project case studies in both countries, and participatory appraisals of grassroots perceptions of gender-poverty-environment links. Study sites were selected to include the major agro ecological zones and rural livelihood systems in each country. National and sub regional participatory forums were conducted to 'ground truth' the findings and elicit policy and project recommendations. A seven-week online discussion explored the broader applicability of the framework and study findings.
  • Publication
    Missing Food : The Case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (Washington, DC, 2011-04) World Bank
    Low-income, food-deficit countries have become especially concerned about the global and national food situation over the past three years. While the proximate cause of this heightened concern was the surge in food prices that began in 2006 and peaked in mid-2008, concerns remain for other reasons, among them the higher market-clearing price levels that now seem to prevail, continuing price volatility, and the risk of intermittent food shortages occurring repeatedly far into the future. For lower-income Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, ongoing contributing factors include persistently low productivity, difficulty adapting to climate change, financial difficulties (inability to handle the burden of high food or fuel prices or a credit squeeze), and increased dependence on food aid. Yet there is an additional, often-forgotten factor that exacerbates food insecurity: postharvest losses (PHL). They can and do occur all along the chain from farm to fork, which reduces real income for all consumers. This especially affects the poor; as such a high percentage of their disposable income is devoted to staple foods. This report is based on the desk study undertaken by experts of the U.K. Natural Resources Institute (NRI). Data were collected by direct contact (e-mail or telephone), with authorities holding information on past and current projects; by searching the Internet for details about projects; and by reviewing published and 'gray' literature. Data were also collected from the personal experiences of the NRI review team who had worked on numerous and diverse projects to reduce grain PHL in SSA over the last 30 years and from experts in the field. These experts were identified and asked to complete a questionnaire that would draw out their experiences to indicate the weakest links in the postharvest chain, the interventions that deserve to be prioritized for future action, and those that should be avoided. Of about 40 invited respondents, a total of 20 returned completed (or partially completed) questionnaires.
  • Publication
    A Knowledge Economy Assessment of Qatar
    (Washington, DC, 2006-12) World Bank
    This knowledge economy assessment of Qatar ranks it using the following indices: the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI), Knowledge Index, Economic Incentive and Institutional Regime, Education, Innovation and Information Infrastructure (ICT). The assessment compares Quatar to the rest of the 131 countries in the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM). In more detail, it is compared to Finland, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates. Qatar s current KEI is 5.83. It ranks higher than the average for MENA (5.06) and the World (5.59). It ranks lower than the regional average for Western Europe (8.32). It has improved since 1995, when it was 5.52. The regional average for MENA has fallen, from 5.31 in 1995. Among comparators, Finland has the highest KEI, at 9.12. The Comparator UAE has the lowest KEI, at 4.95. Qatar is strongest on the ICT pillar it ranks nearly at the 66th percentile. It is weakest on education pillar it ranks at the 52nd percentile. It has improved significantly on innovation pillar, and regressed on the EIR, education and ICT pillars, compared to 1995.
  • Publication
    Shocks and Social Protection : Lessons from the Central American Coffee Crisis, Volume 2, Detailed Country Cases
    (Washington, DC, 2005-12) World Bank
    A major objective of this report is to provide a deeper, more policy relevant understanding of the welfare impacts of the coffee crisis - including the effects of the crisis on household income, consumption, poverty, as well as on basic human development outcomes, such as education and child nutrition. To do this, the study has generated a body of new empirical evidence, drawing from an unusually rich collection of household survey data from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. This includes "panels" of data from Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras that enable one to track changes in welfare of the same households over the period of the crisis. This has helped to provide a more detailed, clearer understanding of the crisis than has been available to date. Given the prevalence of both natural and economic shocks in Central America, another key objective of the study is to draw out the broader policy lessons of the coffee crisis - to enhance the abilities of the region's governments to respond to a range of shocks in a timely and effective manner. To do this, the report draws not only on evidence specific to the coffee crisis, but to other recent analysis on the role and efficacy of different safety net programs in the face of different types of shocks. By learning the lessons of recent experience, Central American governments, along with their development partners, can be better prepared to deal with a variety of different shocks in the future. In pursuing its objectives, the report has been organized into two volumes. Volume I presents a synthesis of the key findings and policy implications, focusing both on the impacts of the coffee crisis, specifically, and the lessons for government responses to shocks, more generally. Volume 2 goes into more detail on the specific impacts of the coffee crisis, presenting the collection of background studies commissioned for this report.
  • Publication
    The Dynamics of Vertical Coordination in Agrifood Chains in Eastern Europe and Centra Asia
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2005) Swinnen, Johan F.M.
    A major problem in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) agricultural sector and rural areas during the transition was the breakdown of the relationships of farms with input suppliers and output markets. The simultaneous privatization and restructuring of the farms and of the up- and downstream companies in the agrifood chain have caused major disruptions. The result is that many farms and rural households face serious constraints in accessing essential inputs (feed, fertilizer, seeds, capital, etc.) and in selling their products. This report presents several case studies and survey reports implemented across countries and subsectors of the agrifood supply chains in ECA. The case studies provide detailed information and analysis and are a rich source of insights in the processes of vertical coordination that are taking place in the ECA region and their effects. In addition, the case studies include interviews with managers of international companies who have invested in this region. The objective of the study was to analyze vertical coordination (VC) in agrifood supply chains in ECA and to identify options for improved policies, institutions, and investments which Governments could make, and which the World Bank could support, in order to improve links in the agricultural marketing and processing chain and increase access of farmers to input and output markets. This is especially important in those countries where contractual arrangements are slow to develop.