Other ESW Reports

253 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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    Mali Public Expenditure Review
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2022-03) World Bank
    Mali is a low-income, fragile country that has suffered extraordinary setbacks in recent years. It is a landlocked economy which is highly dependent on agriculture, and thus vulnerable to external shocks and adverse weather condition. With a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US 875 dollars (current USD) in 2019, Mali is in the lower 15th percentile of the world’s income distribution. Around 42 percent of the population live in extreme poverty. It is also a fragile state that has witnessed persistent conflict with political coups, social tensions, insecurity, and violence. The coup in 2012 has led to continued violence and displacement, leaving 8.7 million people, more than 45 percent of the population, living in crisis affected areas. It was followed by the military coup in August 2020 which has brought in a transitional civil government. The increasingly fragile security situation has also led to spikes in security expenditure, crowding out spending on public services and investment. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) proposes options to address this challenge, including improving spending efficiency and identifying ways to equitably increase domestic revenue. The policy actions and reforms it proposes will create the fiscal space to promote inclusive and sustainable growth. Starting with an overview of macro-fiscal developments, it examines Mali’s expenditure patterns and fiscal sustainability and benchmarks its performance against peer countries. It reviews the domestic revenue needed to meet the Government’s significant financing requirements and how the public finances are managed. It then investigates public spending efficiency in three sectors: education, health, and agriculture. These were chosen for their economic and social importance as well as their considerable share of public expenditure (over 30 percent). The PER provides some context for each sector, then analyzes financing and efficiency using a set of methodologies based on granular spending data and surveys, and concludes with suggested policy actions.
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    Enhancing Smallholder Incomes by Linking to High Value Markets in Pakistan’s Punjab and Sindh Provinces
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Horst, Alexandra ; Watkins, Steven
    The first section of this report reviews the economic transformation underway in Pakistan and its alignment with the development observed in other countries that have also undergone economic change from being primarily agrarian into industrial and service-led economies. The second section provides an overview of Pakistan’s agriculture sector regarding the target commodities and provinces (i.e., fruit and vegetables in Punjab, livestock, and aquaculture in Sindh) and significant trends within the markets of these commodities during the past few years. Past market integration efforts within Pakistan’s agriculture sector, particularly regarding the target commodities, are also discussed in this section. The concluding section provides recommendations based on experiences and lessons learned from previous market linkage interventions. This last section also includes proposed entry points and activities for projects to implement such interventions. An overview of international experiences in collective actions, marketing, and value chain development to promote rural development and increase incomes along agriculture’s supply chains is included in annex one.
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    Review of World Bank Engagement in the Irrigation and Drainage Sector in Azerbaijan
    (Washington, DC, 2013-02) World Bank
    The sector review includes seven chapters and one annex. This first chapter is an overview of agriculture, irrigation and the purpose and content of this report. The second chapter provides a review of the Bank s own strategy and priorities for irrigation and drainage within its portfolio of investments, from the time of its 2004 Strategy until the present. It also includes a short summary of key lessons learned in this sector. The third chapter provides a brief situation analysis for irrigation and drainage in Azerbaijan, including a description of key parameters and changes; a description of rising challenges, needs and opportunities; and an overview of the Government s State Program (SP) for Sustainable Development of Amelioration and water management for 2008-2015. The fourth chapter describes the issues of investment and financing of irrigation and drainage priorities for infrastructure development, rehabilitation and modernization, and management. This includes investment priorities for the Government as well as needs for cost recovery by water users for the cost of irrigation and drainage system operations and maintenance. The fifth chapter describes the institutional framework and how it has emerged since independence. It also identifies outstanding issues for further institutional development, both for the Government and for water users associations (WUA). The sixth chapter describes the implications of climate change for the vulnerable irrigation and drainage sector in Azerbaijan. Suggestions are provided for a process to prepare an adaptation strategy for climate change. The seventh chapter identifies ten key priorities for investments in the irrigation and drainage sector in Azerbaijan. These priorities are based on the views of staff of the World Bank, staff of the AIOJSC (Amelioration and Irrigation Open Joint Stock Company), selected consultants and the author.
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    Missing Food : The Case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (Washington, DC, 2011-04) World Bank
    Low-income, food-deficit countries have become especially concerned about the global and national food situation over the past three years. While the proximate cause of this heightened concern was the surge in food prices that began in 2006 and peaked in mid-2008, concerns remain for other reasons, among them the higher market-clearing price levels that now seem to prevail, continuing price volatility, and the risk of intermittent food shortages occurring repeatedly far into the future. For lower-income Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, ongoing contributing factors include persistently low productivity, difficulty adapting to climate change, financial difficulties (inability to handle the burden of high food or fuel prices or a credit squeeze), and increased dependence on food aid. Yet there is an additional, often-forgotten factor that exacerbates food insecurity: postharvest losses (PHL). They can and do occur all along the chain from farm to fork, which reduces real income for all consumers. This especially affects the poor; as such a high percentage of their disposable income is devoted to staple foods. This report is based on the desk study undertaken by experts of the U.K. Natural Resources Institute (NRI). Data were collected by direct contact (e-mail or telephone), with authorities holding information on past and current projects; by searching the Internet for details about projects; and by reviewing published and 'gray' literature. Data were also collected from the personal experiences of the NRI review team who had worked on numerous and diverse projects to reduce grain PHL in SSA over the last 30 years and from experts in the field. These experts were identified and asked to complete a questionnaire that would draw out their experiences to indicate the weakest links in the postharvest chain, the interventions that deserve to be prioritized for future action, and those that should be avoided. Of about 40 invited respondents, a total of 20 returned completed (or partially completed) questionnaires.
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    Pakistan - Gilgit-Baltistan Economic Report : Broadening the Transformation
    (World Bank, 2010-12-02) World Bank
    Parts of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), the northeastern most administrative region of Pakistan, have been undergoing a dramatic transformation over the last three decades. Given the challenging environment, GB's development outcomes are impressive, built on the time-tempered resilience of the people of GB and facilitated by high levels of social capital. GB has also benefitted from the attentions of the national Government of Pakistan (GoP) (motivated in no small measure by geopolitical and national cohesion considerations) and the strong engagement of civil society organizations (CSOs). The structure of the report follows the storyline of seeking to overcome the odds and broaden the transformation, with a review of development performance to date, a discussion of the main challenges the GB faces, a set of discussions at the sectoral level (based on a series of background papers that are available separately and listed in annex two), and an appraisal of what it will take to follow through on some key policy options, in terms of capacity, consultations, political will, fiscal reforms, and additional resources. The sectoral narratives are arranged in three groups: sources of private sector led growth (agriculture, minerals, tourism, and trade), key public services (social protection, education, health, and water supply and sanitation) and essential infrastructure (irrigation, electricity, and transport), all of which are critical to enhancing development performance. Meaningful steps and actions that will promote progress in each sector are identified, separated into those that appear feasible now, and those that will need to await more favorable circumstances in the future. The rest of the executive summary mirrors the structure of the main report, concluding with a table listing the top 15 policy options for immediate action and for pursuit over the medium-term (the full set of policy options is compiled in annex three).
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    Technical Assistance and Training in Integrated Provincial Planning : Quang Nam Province, Vietnam
    (Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    Traditionally both national and regional development planning in Vietnam has been driven by 'top-down' Central Government social and economic targets based on limited analytical investigation. However, with the advent of the free market economy in Vietnam since the late 1980s, vigorous global economic competitiveness and Vietnam's membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO), changes in national policy in Vietnam have now required a more decentralized approach to development planning based on the preparation of integrated regional development strategies. This change in policy direction requires the application of new and innovative approaches to development planning underpinned by 'best practice' tools and techniques. This new way of planning will more effectively manage current and future investment opportunities at the provincial and regional levels in Vietnam. This report is the culmination of the findings and recommendations of the project over this three month period noting that the training program itself involved a total of 45 participants from relevant provincial government and district level authorities in Quang Nam Province (QNP). Appendix two is a list of participants. It is emphasized that the method of training adopted in this technical assistance project was very interactive, it required individual and group tasks to be completed by participants based on the organization of participants into five teams, nomination of a team leader for each team and regular presentations of team activities to the whole group throughout the training program. The program ran for a total of seven days (7-9 October 2008 and 4-6 November 2008) with a 'report back' workshop session of all participants and other provincial government officials on 7 November 2008.
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    Tunisia's Global Integration : Second Generation of Reforms to Boost Growth and Employment
    (Washington, DC, 2008-05) World Bank
    This report addresses the following issues: Chapter one takes stock of the integration policies implemented since the early 1970s and assessed their impact on foreign direct investments (FDI), exports and employment. Chapter two looks at today's major challenges in the manufacturing sector and the specific policies needed to address them. Chapter three assesses the entry, business, and trade restrictions in Tunisia's key backbone services sectors (telecommunication, banking, air transport, accounting, auditing, and legal services) using a well-focused regulatory questionnaire. The restrictiveness indices calculated from the regulatory questionnaire are then used to benchmark Tunisia against Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and some emerging economies and to simulate the impact of various liberalization options on the price of services and the economy via a multi-region general equilibrium model. Finally, chapter four examines the prospect for increasing exports and off shoring of a large number of services for which Tunisia has demonstrated a strong capacity for export in recent years. The significant increase in real incomes in Tunisia is the result of solid gross domestic product (GDP) growth since the mid-1960s (5 percent a year), low inflation and the demographic transition, faster than in neighboring countries. In 1996-2007, economic growth has exhibited greater resilience to moderate exogenous shocks, thanks to prudent macroeconomic management public debt declined from 62.4 percent in 2001 to 50.9 percent of GDP in 2007 thanks to pro-active debt management. The resulting decline in the debt service since 2005 combined with steady GDP growth allowed the government to 'protect' capital expenditures and key social spending within the context of low but structural fiscal deficit. While the current account remained in deficit over the last 10 years, foreign exchange reserves increased steadily thanks to increasing FDI inflows. In 2007, international reserves increased by US$ 1 billion to US$ 7.8 billion, representing 4.6 months of imports of goods and services.
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    Yemen Poverty Assessment : Volume 2. Annexes
    (Washington, DC, 2007-11) World Bank
    From what was historically known as 'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity. Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable household budget surveys are available. The period between the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures the effect of the economic reform programs launched since 1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the vulnerable poor through public action, and an assessment of the poverty monitoring system. By examining the effect of the key policies on poverty, such as the petroleum price reform and the government's social protection mechanisms between 1998 and 2005-06, the study aims to equip policy makers and development partners with the knowledge needed to improve the effectiveness of their efforts to reduce poverty in Yemen.
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    An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Botswana, Volume 2. Detailed Results and Econometric Analysis
    (Washington, DC, 2007-06) World Bank
    The objective of the Botswana Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Botswana in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location specific factors that shape the opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These factors include macroeconomic and regulatory policies; the security of property rights and the rule of law; and the quality of supporting institutions such as physical and financial infrastructure. The main sources of information for the ICA are two firm-level surveys. The first survey covered Small, Medium, and Large Enterprises (SMLEs) with five or more employees in retail trade, manufacturing, and other services. The second covered micro enterprise with fewer than five employees in the same sectors. Information from the survey is supplemented with information from other sources, including the doing business report; analytical reports by the World Bank, the international monetary fund, other international organizations and the Government of Botswana; and academic papers and reports. Although the analysis in this report suggests that there are some areas where the investment climate might be improved, it is important to note none of these problems with the possible exception of worker skills appear to be particularly debilitating. This suggests that other factors are probably also playing a role. One such factor is likely to be the small size (in terms of population) and remoteness of the economy. Another factor is the effect that is the macroeconomic effects of the large mining economy has on the competitiveness of the rest of the economy. Improving living standards and cutting poverty depends on broad-based economic growth, which will only take place when firms improve worker productivity by investing in human and physical capital and technological capacity. But firms will only invest when the investment climate is favorable.
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    Nigeria - Competitiveness and Growth : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2007-05) World Bank
    The theme of this report is Nigeria's competitiveness and growth. This report consequently focuses on constraints, opportunities and strategic choices associated with increasing productivity and growth of the Nigerian economy on a sustained basis. Its objective is not to present a "blueprint" for Nigeria's growth but rather to raise issues and provide some options for the consideration of policy makers and other Nigerian stakeholders. The report is structured in four main sections. The first section analyzes Nigeria's growth history, examines the recent growth pick up and assesses its sustainability. The second section analyses how the critical constraints to competitiveness and growth may be addressed. The third section discusses how trade -domestic and external - can be used more effectively to drive growth and poverty reduction. The final chapter provides policy conclusions and suggestions on what could be key elements of a growth agenda for Nigeria. The analysis in this report suggests the following key elements for a growth strategy for Nigeria: 1) Strengthening actions to tackle the most immediate constraints to the competitiveness of the economy presented by infrastructure and the business environment; 2) Using domestic trade more effectively to enhance productivity and competitiveness by strengthening their functioning, and building stronger linkages between the oil and non-oil sectors, and over time strengthening Nigeria's integration into global markets; 3) Ensuring that the poor can participate more fully in growth by placing urgent emphasis on (i) finding ways to give back some of the proceeds of oil windfall directly to Nigerians; (ii) raising agricultural productivity-including through enhanced technology; and (iii) encouraging the transition from informality to the formal sector; and 4) Building the human capital and technological base of the economy over the longer term.