Items in this collection
PublicationThe Future of Work: Implications for Equity and Growth in Europe(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Dalvit, Nicolò; De Hoyos, Rafael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Pantelaiou, Ioanna; Torre, IvánThis report aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between technology, economic growth, and equity by analyzing the impact of technological progress on firm-level productivity, market concentration, and labor market outcomes of workers with different education levels. The analysis focuses on the effects that technology can have in European Union (EU) member states, addressing two main distributional challenges: (i) an increase in market concentration, with a few large and innovative firms hoarding the benefits of technological progress, and (ii) technological progress exacerbating income differences between highly educated and other workers. These two challenges, and the public policies aiming to address them, will shape the future relationship between technological progress, economic growth, and income distribution in Europe. PublicationThe Leaders of the Twin Transition in Asia: Mapping Capabilities through Digital and Green Patents(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-17) World BankThis report examines how technology affects digital and green transitions in 128 cities across 17 Asian countries. It identifies cities that lead, follow, or have the potential to develop green and digital technologies using patent data analysis. Relatedness Density maps are produced for each digital and green technology, indicating the level of potential and the relative position each city has to develop Twin Transition technologies. A complementarity indicator is used to identify potential partner cities that can provide complementary capabilities to a city to develop green or digital technology. The analysis finds that digital and green technologies are not necessarily closely associated with each other, though some technologies can be used for both, such as smart grids. Furthermore, digital capabilities affect the development of both digital and green technologies. Based on the findings, the research suggests cities need to consider the relative strengths of their technologies instead of following a 'one-size-fits-all' approach, and cities need to target partners cities that can offer complementary capabilities to enable the green and digital transitions. PublicationAffordable Devices for All: Innovative Financing Solutions and Policy Options to Bridge Global Digital Divides(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-10) Rami, Amin; Gallegos, DoyleNearly 2.7 billion people globally are still offline and not using the internet. The majority (94 percent) of unconnected individuals live in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of internet-enabled mobile devices remains a key connectivity barrier. This report aims to guide the efforts of policy makers and international financial institutions (IFIs) in promoting affordable mobile device ownership and increasing adoption and usage of broadband services, with a focus on these low-income individuals in developing countries often overlooked by previous research. The report examines the key themes and drivers of costs in the supply and demand for Internet-enabled mobile devices. The report also reviews various financing schemes and opportunities for private capital mobilization that could make it possible for low-income individuals to access a smartphone. PublicationRWI Phase 3 Report on Regulatory Trends(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-25) World BankThe Regulatory Watch Initiative (RWI) is designed as a supplementary tool to aid national administrations in contemplating, analyzing, and drafting policies, laws, and regulations. It can also provide insight on comparative measures to spur Digital Economy growth by informing decision-makers about gaps, trends, and best practices for developing a fully enabling environment and to support the adoption of digital infrastructure for integrated and balanced economic and social development. PublicationWorking Without Borders: The Promise and Peril of Online Gig Work(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-24) Datta, Namita; Rong, Chen; Singh, Sunamika; Stinshoff, Clara; Iacob, Nadina; Nigatu, Natnael Simachew; Nxumalo, Mpumelelo; Klimaviciute, LukaOnline gig work poses both opportunities and challenges for governments and workers. On the upside, it offers prospects for income generation, especially in developing countries, where most people work in low-productivity, low-quality, often informal jobs. The virtual and often temporary nature of gig work also provides flexibility for often neglected groups such as women, youth, migrants, and people with disabilities. These jobs could be a stepping-stone to bet¬ter-quality jobs for low-skilled workers by helping them learn critical digital skills and close the digital divide. But most gig jobs offer little to no protection for workers, with uncertain income streams and no clear career pathways. Depending on local labor regulations, many gig workers are not protected against unfair practices, abuse or injuries while working. Gig work also raises challenges for managing data security and privacy. The report examines how countries can navigate the promise and perils of online gig work. It reveals that the online gig workforce is much larger than previously assumed with an estimated 154 million to 435 million Online gig workers around the globe. For the first time ever, the report mapped and tracked regional platforms and gig workers who work in languages other than English. Key messages are: • Online gig work is expanding, accounting for up to 12% of the global labor force and is a growing source of income for millions. • Demand for online gig workers is rising faster in developing countries than in industrialized countries. • Local gig platforms play a vital role in the local labor market, but they face challenges in establishing a viable business model, and opportunities for long-term growth. • Online gig work can support inclusion by providing work opportunities for youth, women, and low-skilled workers. • Gig workers, like most other informal sector workers in developing countries, are often outside the purview of labor regulations. • The gig economy can offer opportunities locally to build digital skills, increase income-earning opportunities, and facilitate social protection coverage of informal workers. PublicationGovTech Maturity Index, 2022 Update: Trends in Public Sector Digital Transformation(Washington, DC, 2022-12) World BankThe 2021 GovTech Maturity Index (GTMI) report and underlying dataset provide opportunities to replicate the study, identify gaps in digital transformation by comparing the differences among economies and groups of economies, and track changes over time in a transparent way. The dataset will be updated every two years to reflect developments in the GovTech domain. This 2022 GTMI update report and the accompanying dataset and new data dashboard present the progress within the last two years, highlight some of the good practices, and identify existing gaps for possible improvements in countries at the technology frontier. As with the 2020 edition, economies are grouped, not ranked, to illustrate the state of GovTech focus areas globally. This overview report presents a summary of the approach, how the 2022 GTMI dataset update is different, improvements in the GTMI dataset contents and visualization tools and GTMI group calculations, and initial findings and key messages. PublicationA Spiky Digital Business Landscape: What Can Developing Countries Do?(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-10) Zhu, Tingting Juni; Grinsted, Philip; Song, Hangyul; Velamuri, MalathiDigital technologies hold the promise of bridging wealth gaps through innovation-driven growth, but the “winners-take-most” dynamic of digital business models calls into question the net growth effect and the global footprint of this sector. Digital transformation is driven by a set of digital technologies that have led to a rapid and steep decline in the costs of data storage, computation, and transmission. These technologies hold promise for bridging the wealth gap between nations by allowing developing countries to catch up with generations of previous technologies. At the same time, characteristics inherent to these technologies have the potential to result in a “winner-takes-most” dynamic, by creating market entry barriers and leading to high levels of concentration and potential market dominance. For the first time, this report provides novel evidence of the characteristics of digital business and markets in 190 countries. The report defines digital businesses as digital solution providers that develop and manufacture digital technology products or digital services; a subset of these can also use platform-based and/or data-intensive network effect business models. The report draws on the World Bank’s newly assembled firm-level database of 200,000 digital businesses in 190 countries, to provide unique evidence on the current global digital business landscape. PublicationStrengthening the Cybersecurity of Electricity Grids: Context and Good Practices for Transmission and Distribution System Operators(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankCyberattacks against industrial control systems (ICS) are on the rise. Roughly one-third of ICS were targeted by malicious activity in the first half of 2021, with hackers often tied to nation-states and organized crime. Electric utilities around the world have been undergoing a transformative digitalization process, promoting efficiency but also exposing the sector to cyberattacks that can have serious negative effects on other critical infrastructure (transport, water supply, etc.). Given the increased connectivity and digitalization of power networks, and the convergence of operational technology (OT) with information technology (IT), cybersecurity and proactive cyber risk management in the electricity sector have become a necessity. PublicationDriving Revolutionary Ideas into Practice: Infrastructure for Climate Change, Poverty Reduction 2.0, Human Development on Mobile Government, Disrupted(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankIn the business of making policies, decisions are based on experience and guided by political concerns. However, in the business of delivering policies, the machinery of government is often taxed by delays and inefficiencies, and constrained by insufficient resources, management tools, and just-in-time information. The result is that governments operate well below the efficiency frontier. For most of our history, research has been disconnected from policy and has moved slowly to build knowledge relevant to designing policies. The authors introduce some of the principles that govern this young institution in the chapters that follow, each designed to exemplify the value of doing better research for doing better development. In these chapters, they present four overarching ideas that they have worked into development practice. Overall, Development Impact Evaluation (DIME’s) approach is to inform the path of development through a capacities-based and iterative process of evidence-informed adaptive policy change. To do so, DIME has developed and implemented a model of co-production with agencies on the ground that transfers capacity and know-how to partners, enables them to make mid-course corrections and motivates the scale-up of more successful policy instruments to achieve policy outcomes and optimize development impact. Finally, DIME invests in public goods to improve the quality and reproducibility of development research around the world. PublicationPreliminary Findings Report on Gender-Inclusive Approaches in Private Participation in Infrastructure(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank GroupThe report is a unique investigation into how private investors perceive gender inequality and its importance for their investments. It examines perceptions of private investors and lenders related to gender equality and inclusion of women and girls in infrastructure services and facilities in emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). As disclosure of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) information and sustainability reporting becomes more common in the private sector, understanding why and how gender inequalities matter within the sphere of social sustainability and inclusion is becoming increasingly important. The analysis below is based on original semi-structured interviews conducted with investors and lenders in the private sector that routinely invest in or finance infrastructure projects in EMDEs. It aims to understand: (i) how the investor community perceives the intersection between infrastructure and social sustainability and inclusion, particularly with respect to the inclusion of women and girls; (ii) what social issues investors and lenders feel are important; (iii) what actions they take in including women and girls in infrastructure projects and the challenges they face in doing so.