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PublicationData Diagnostic for Kerala - Spotlight on Resilience: Action plan based on a rapid diagnostic of data governance in the State of Kerala(Washington, D.C., 2023-10-17) World BankThe Government of Kerala (GoK) is committed to using data-driven tools and services for resilience and has embarked upon several innovative data programs that address known gaps in the resilience related service delivery architecture and the data ecosystem. The World Bank, through the ongoing Additional Financing for Resilient Kerala Program (P177980) is supporting the GoK in its efforts to use data effectively for resilience towards future disasters. At the invitation of the GoK, a World Bank team conducted a rapid diagnostic of the state of data governance in Kerala. The diagnostic aims to support the GoK in combining data initiatives related to climate change and disaster risk management into an integrated ecosystem of technology products and processes, as well as strengthen institutional mandates by enhancing data governance policies and creating incentives for data sharing. The findings of the rapid diagnostic suggest that a vibrant, innovative, and entrepreneurial data ecosystem for resilience exists within the GoK. The government and its partner agencies have developed and deployed several sophisticated resilience-related, data-driven tools, applications, and platforms. GoK however is unable to derive the full extent of benefits from these applications as most of these initiatives are not underpinned by a common set of standards, methods, and policies, leading to suboptimal citizen user experience and effectiveness. The data diagnostic of the data ecosystem of the State provides global and national benchmarking, identifies gaps and opportunity areas, and recommends five strategic action steps and a number of tactical action steps that GoK can take to strengthen data governance and demonstrate the value of data-driven initiatives. The diagnostic was carried out through secondary research and semi-structured interviews. The diagnostic team thanks the wide range of GoK stakeholders who readily agreed to be interviewed for the study, in particular the Kerala State IT Mission (KSITM) who was the main counterpart in developing the diagnostic. PublicationThe Leaders of the Twin Transition in Asia: Mapping Capabilities through Digital and Green Patents(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-17) World BankThis report examines how technology affects digital and green transitions in 128 cities across 17 Asian countries. It identifies cities that lead, follow, or have the potential to develop green and digital technologies using patent data analysis. Relatedness Density maps are produced for each digital and green technology, indicating the level of potential and the relative position each city has to develop Twin Transition technologies. A complementarity indicator is used to identify potential partner cities that can provide complementary capabilities to a city to develop green or digital technology. The analysis finds that digital and green technologies are not necessarily closely associated with each other, though some technologies can be used for both, such as smart grids. Furthermore, digital capabilities affect the development of both digital and green technologies. Based on the findings, the research suggests cities need to consider the relative strengths of their technologies instead of following a 'one-size-fits-all' approach, and cities need to target partners cities that can offer complementary capabilities to enable the green and digital transitions. PublicationRWI Phase 3 Report on Regulatory Trends(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-25) World BankThe Regulatory Watch Initiative (RWI) is designed as a supplementary tool to aid national administrations in contemplating, analyzing, and drafting policies, laws, and regulations. It can also provide insight on comparative measures to spur Digital Economy growth by informing decision-makers about gaps, trends, and best practices for developing a fully enabling environment and to support the adoption of digital infrastructure for integrated and balanced economic and social development. PublicationGovTech Maturity Index, 2022 Update: Trends in Public Sector Digital Transformation(Washington, DC, 2022-12) World BankThe 2021 GovTech Maturity Index (GTMI) report and underlying dataset provide opportunities to replicate the study, identify gaps in digital transformation by comparing the differences among economies and groups of economies, and track changes over time in a transparent way. The dataset will be updated every two years to reflect developments in the GovTech domain. This 2022 GTMI update report and the accompanying dataset and new data dashboard present the progress within the last two years, highlight some of the good practices, and identify existing gaps for possible improvements in countries at the technology frontier. As with the 2020 edition, economies are grouped, not ranked, to illustrate the state of GovTech focus areas globally. This overview report presents a summary of the approach, how the 2022 GTMI dataset update is different, improvements in the GTMI dataset contents and visualization tools and GTMI group calculations, and initial findings and key messages. PublicationDigitalizing SMEs to Boost Competitiveness(Washington, DC, 2022-10) World BankWhile Malaysia’s digital economy had already been growing rapidly over the past decade, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has further accelerated this trend. In particular, increased access to digital platforms has enabled businesses of all sizes to mitigate the crisis’ adverse impacts. At the same time, the depth and breadth of small and medium enterprise (SME) digitalization has remained limited, suggesting a growing risk of digital divide in the country. This report analyzes opportunities and challenges for Malaysian SMEs to better leverage digital tools and platforms to increase their productivity and competitiveness. It is structured around three complementary analytical pillars: (i) a digital business landscape diagnostic presenting the extent of digitalization and use of digital platforms among SMEs in traditional sectors, and the constraints that SMEs still face to digitalize; (ii) an institutional and policy mapping reviewing the government of Malaysia’s efforts to foster SME digitalization; and (iii) a digital market regulations assessment evaluating the adequacy of Malaysia’s digital regulatory environment, to identify shortcomings that may undermine SMEs’ capacity to access and benefit from the use of digital platforms. The analysis has been undertaken with a view to inform the implementation of the Malaysia Digital Blueprint (MyDIGITAL). PublicationStrengthening the Cybersecurity of Electricity Grids: Context and Good Practices for Transmission and Distribution System Operators(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankCyberattacks against industrial control systems (ICS) are on the rise. Roughly one-third of ICS were targeted by malicious activity in the first half of 2021, with hackers often tied to nation-states and organized crime. Electric utilities around the world have been undergoing a transformative digitalization process, promoting efficiency but also exposing the sector to cyberattacks that can have serious negative effects on other critical infrastructure (transport, water supply, etc.). Given the increased connectivity and digitalization of power networks, and the convergence of operational technology (OT) with information technology (IT), cybersecurity and proactive cyber risk management in the electricity sector have become a necessity. PublicationDriving Revolutionary Ideas into Practice: Infrastructure for Climate Change, Poverty Reduction 2.0, Human Development on Mobile Government, Disrupted(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankIn the business of making policies, decisions are based on experience and guided by political concerns. However, in the business of delivering policies, the machinery of government is often taxed by delays and inefficiencies, and constrained by insufficient resources, management tools, and just-in-time information. The result is that governments operate well below the efficiency frontier. For most of our history, research has been disconnected from policy and has moved slowly to build knowledge relevant to designing policies. The authors introduce some of the principles that govern this young institution in the chapters that follow, each designed to exemplify the value of doing better research for doing better development. In these chapters, they present four overarching ideas that they have worked into development practice. Overall, Development Impact Evaluation (DIME’s) approach is to inform the path of development through a capacities-based and iterative process of evidence-informed adaptive policy change. To do so, DIME has developed and implemented a model of co-production with agencies on the ground that transfers capacity and know-how to partners, enables them to make mid-course corrections and motivates the scale-up of more successful policy instruments to achieve policy outcomes and optimize development impact. Finally, DIME invests in public goods to improve the quality and reproducibility of development research around the world. PublicationSectoral Approach to the Drivers of Productivity Growth in Poland: A Firm-Level Perspective on Technology Adoption and Firm Capabilities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThe report presents the main structural characteristics of the sectors included in the Technology Adoption Survey (TAS) implemented in Poland and provides sectoral TAS results for general and sector-specific business functions, comparing Poland to a peer country, Korea. Nine sectors analyzed within TAS include agriculture, food processing, wearing apparel, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, basic metals, wholesale and retail trade, financial services, and land transport. These form a selection of the most important economic industries in agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The same sectors were chosen in all countries where TAS was implemented because of their important contributions to the national economies as well as their diversity, which allowed us to identify the different natures of their technological needs and the barriers to technology adoption. Sectors in Poland differ in technology sophistication in both general business and sector-specific functions but, to a large extent, those differences are driven by the sectors’ structural differences, such as the number of large firms, the share of exporters, and the number foreign-owned enterprises. Firms in different sectors face different economic conditions and are exposed to a different balance of regulatory, environmental, and geopolitical risks and challenges. Understanding those sectoral differences, especially as they affect the use of sector-specific technologies, is of utmost importance, because productivity improvements historically have been driven primarily by capital-intensive investment, which often involves sector-specific technologies. In the context of sector-specific technologies, it is worth noting that the level of sophistication differs between sectors. Comparing technology trends across sectors is beyond the scope of this report, however; rather, here we closely follow the methodology described in Bridging the Technological Divide: Technology Adoption by Firms in Developing Countries. PublicationInteroperability: Towards a Data-Driven Public Sector(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankInteroperability frameworks are a key enabler for GovTech, the World Bank’s whole-of-government approach to public sector modernization, as they reduce system boundaries between government agencies by setting standards and guidelines across government systems to allow for seamless exchange of information and communication between systems. But governments may face several challenges when setting up and implementing interoperability frameworks, related to a mix of technical, semantic, legal, organizational, and cultural factors. This How-to Note provides advice on what interoperability in the public sector is, why it is needed and how it can be implemented with various examples and a whole-of-government approach to interoperability taking into account both digital and nondigital aspects is of the essence. PublicationData Practices in MENA: Case Study - Opportunities and Challenges in Jordan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03) World BankJordan aspires to become a regional digital leader and has identified digital economy as a high priority for the country’s social and economic development. More recently, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has created an urgency for Jordan to adapt to the post-pandemic world driven by digital infrastructure and services. Against this background, this case study provides an assessment of the data governance practices in Jordan as well as a set of high-level policy recommendations to strengthen data governance in support of a vibrant, safe, and inclusive digital economy. Data governance is a necessary process of managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of data in public and private systems. Solid data governance ecosystem, supported by capacity building for institutions and inclusive communications and dissemination campaigns, can foster trust in data use in a country and region with a fragile social contract. The diagnostic toolkit used in this report interrogates three pillars: enablers; safeguards; and value creation.