Items in this collection
Partnering with the World Bank through Trust Funds and Umbrella 2.0 Programs: A Guide for Development Partners
2024-02-14, World Bank
This Guide provides a brief overview of World Bank Trust Funds—what they are, what they fund, and the operating environment in which they are managed. It also describes the Umbrella 2.0 Program, an approach to organizing and managing trust funds for greater development impact. In addition, it highlights and provides links to key policies underpinning implementation of activities carried out by the World Bank or by recipients of its funds—policies that apply equally to activities funded by trust fund contributions.
Voices from Yemen
2023-09-14, World Bank
This report highlights respondents’ lived experiences during Yemen’s conflict as experts of their own experiences. This report aims to present the voices of Yemenis who have now spent eight years living through a civil war, economic crisis, and close to famine. This report is among the few authentically capturing Yemeni voices on a range of day-to-day issues from different governorates across the country. But arguably the small sample size limits ability to generalize findings. However, generalizing findings was not the intention of the report. For each theme, 'Voices from Yemen' presents a multi-stakeholder perspective to mitigate bias towards a single stakeholder group or geographical area. Moreover, the report’s findings are in line with those in quantitative reports, such as ‘Surviving in the Times of War’ or the ‘World Bank Phone Survey’ report on food security. ‘Voices from Yemen’ presents a comprehensive picture of suffering derived from human stories behind the statistics. The conflict has made Yemeni lives unaffordable, uncertain, vulnerable, and often unbearable. The power of people’s speech and the intensity of their stories narrate their grave vulnerabilities and the sense of helplessness and suffering the conflict has caused.
Why the World Trade Organization is Critical for Vaccine Supply Chain Resilience During a Pandemic
2022-05, Bown, Chad P.
Cross-border supply chains and international trade played a critical role in vaccinating much of the world to address the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Considering that experience, this note describes the changes needed to make the World Trade Organization (WTO) a more useful institution during such a public health emergency. It begins by describing the market failures confronting vaccines especially on the supply side, to introduce the domestic subsidies and contracting arrangements needed to accelerate vaccine research and development, and to increase the scale and speed of vaccine production during a pandemic. As an application, it relies on illustrative examples of US subsidies that emerged during COVID-19. However, the challenge confronting policymakers is exacerbated in an environment characterized by cross-border supply chains, making input shortage problems impacting production even worse. Thus, the note highlights the need for new forms of international policy coordination, including initiatives on supply chain transparency, as well as agreements to increase subsidies across countries to jointly scale up vaccine output and input production capacity along the entire supply chain. It concludes that while the WTO was mostly absent this time around, it remains the best-positioned international organization to facilitate these novel forms of international economic policy cooperation.
Non-Profit Organizations TF Risk Assessment Tool: Identifying the FATF NPOs at Risk of Terrorist Financing Abuse - Guidance Manual
2022, World Bank
The National Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment (NRA) Toolkit has been developed by World Bank Group (WBG) staff members to support WBG client countries and jurisdictions in self-assessing their money laundering and terrorist financing risks.The nonprofit organization (NPO) tool of the NRA Tool serves as an instrument that jurisdictions can use to support their analyses of the terrorist financing abuse of NPOs. Through it, the Working Group will identify NPOs that meet the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) definition, assess the evidence of NPO abuse for terrorist financing, determine the inherent risk (exposure to active terrorist threat), and review the quality of existing mitigation measures. This analysis should seek to complement and draw on national terrorism and terrorist financing risk assessments.
Data Diagnostic for Kerala - Spotlight on Resilience: Action plan based on a rapid diagnostic of data governance in the State of Kerala
2023-10-17, World Bank
The Government of Kerala (GoK) is committed to using data-driven tools and services for resilience and has embarked upon several innovative data programs that address known gaps in the resilience related service delivery architecture and the data ecosystem. The World Bank, through the ongoing Additional Financing for Resilient Kerala Program (P177980) is supporting the GoK in its efforts to use data effectively for resilience towards future disasters. At the invitation of the GoK, a World Bank team conducted a rapid diagnostic of the state of data governance in Kerala. The diagnostic aims to support the GoK in combining data initiatives related to climate change and disaster risk management into an integrated ecosystem of technology products and processes, as well as strengthen institutional mandates by enhancing data governance policies and creating incentives for data sharing. The findings of the rapid diagnostic suggest that a vibrant, innovative, and entrepreneurial data ecosystem for resilience exists within the GoK. The government and its partner agencies have developed and deployed several sophisticated resilience-related, data-driven tools, applications, and platforms. GoK however is unable to derive the full extent of benefits from these applications as most of these initiatives are not underpinned by a common set of standards, methods, and policies, leading to suboptimal citizen user experience and effectiveness. The data diagnostic of the data ecosystem of the State provides global and national benchmarking, identifies gaps and opportunity areas, and recommends five strategic action steps and a number of tactical action steps that GoK can take to strengthen data governance and demonstrate the value of data-driven initiatives. The diagnostic was carried out through secondary research and semi-structured interviews. The diagnostic team thanks the wide range of GoK stakeholders who readily agreed to be interviewed for the study, in particular the Kerala State IT Mission (KSITM) who was the main counterpart in developing the diagnostic.
Philippine Jobs Report: Shaping a Better Future for the Filipino Workforce
2023-03-27, World Bank
Shaping a Better Future for the Filipino Workforce aims to inform jobs policy by examining key determinants and outcomes of jobs. Jobs are created when the macroeconomic environment is conducive and policies are predictable to businesses with sustained growth, trades, and investments. At the same time, a large body of literature also shows that economic growth alone is not sufficient for generating jobs. Jobs are created when firms pursue expansion through innovation and competitiveness and demand for more labor input, while workers’ skills and human capital are able to meet the needs of firms. Intrahousehold resource allocation and decisions for labor supply also affect the jobs outcomes. It is not uncommon that workers as self-employed create jobs by initiating their own business. The market clearing process of labor is then affected by labor market institutions, most notably labor market regulations and labor policies and programs. These are key determinants of how easy it is to start a business or to hire a worker, how high labor costs are, and how efficiently firms and workers are matched. Part I looks into the country’s labor market in chronological order, while Part II discusses three major areas of Philippine jobs - labor regulation, international migration, and emerging demands for green and digital jobs.
Mali Public Expenditure Review
2022-03, World Bank
Mali is a low-income, fragile country that has suffered extraordinary setbacks in recent years. It is a landlocked economy which is highly dependent on agriculture, and thus vulnerable to external shocks and adverse weather condition. With a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US 875 dollars (current USD) in 2019, Mali is in the lower 15th percentile of the world’s income distribution. Around 42 percent of the population live in extreme poverty. It is also a fragile state that has witnessed persistent conflict with political coups, social tensions, insecurity, and violence. The coup in 2012 has led to continued violence and displacement, leaving 8.7 million people, more than 45 percent of the population, living in crisis affected areas. It was followed by the military coup in August 2020 which has brought in a transitional civil government. The increasingly fragile security situation has also led to spikes in security expenditure, crowding out spending on public services and investment. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) proposes options to address this challenge, including improving spending efficiency and identifying ways to equitably increase domestic revenue. The policy actions and reforms it proposes will create the fiscal space to promote inclusive and sustainable growth. Starting with an overview of macro-fiscal developments, it examines Mali’s expenditure patterns and fiscal sustainability and benchmarks its performance against peer countries. It reviews the domestic revenue needed to meet the Government’s significant financing requirements and how the public finances are managed. It then investigates public spending efficiency in three sectors: education, health, and agriculture. These were chosen for their economic and social importance as well as their considerable share of public expenditure (over 30 percent). The PER provides some context for each sector, then analyzes financing and efficiency using a set of methodologies based on granular spending data and surveys, and concludes with suggested policy actions.
Unlocking the Potential of Women and Adolescent Girls in Madagascar - Challenges and Opportunities in Enhancing Girls’ and Women’s Agency: Cahier 4
2023-10-04, World Bank
This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth analysis of the limitations that Malagasy women and girls encounter in respect to their agency and proposes several strategic lines of action to improve women’s and girls’ voice and decision-making and to eliminate all forms of GBV. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and economic opportunities.
Municipal Mergers and Associations: International Experience and Reform Options for Croatia
2022-05, World Bank
Croatia’s high degree of municipal fragmentation has been consistently recognized as a weakness and one of the main problems of its intergovernmental fiscal system. The report argues that the problem of fragmentation is in essence a problem of capacity. The objective of this report is to review international experiences and lessons in the promotion of local government mergers and municipal associations to inform efforts to advance institutional reform in Croatia and address the problem of low local government capacity. The report is organized into six sections. The first section is introduction, the second section reviews the fragmented territorial administrative structure in Croatia, and the third is devoted to unpacking the concept of local government units (LGU) capacity. The fourth section focuses on relevant international experience related to municipal fragmentation and capacity deficiencies, and the fifth examines incentive measures for Intermunicipal Cooperation (IMC) and the creation of associations or commonwealths. The sixth section lays out policy options and recommendations for Croatia, prioritized along a sequence for implementation.
Defueling Conflict: Environment and Natural Resource Management as a Pathway to Peace
2022, Ahmadnia, Shaadee, Christien, Agathe Marie, Spencer, Phoebe, Hart, Tracy, De Araujo Barbosa, Caio Cesar
Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS), environmental degradation, and natural disasters are on the rise and threaten to reverse development gains. In the past decade, violent civil conflicts have tripled and the number of people living in proximity to conflict has nearly doubled, with forced displacement at a record high. The World Bank Group (WBG) Strategy for Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV) 2020–2025 marks a shift in the World Bank’s work in fragile and conflict situations, as it adopts a more holistic approach to prevention. The Strategy seeks to enhance the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting countries’ efforts to address the drivers and impacts of FCV and strengthen their resilience, especially for their most vulnerable and marginalized populations. The FCV Strategy explicitly recognizes the importance of climate change as a driver of FCV and as a threat multiplier, as well as the need to address the environmental impacts and drivers of FCV. Delivering on this shift toward preventing conflict underscores the importance of understanding the role the environment and natural resources can have. This report seeks to build a strong narrative on the need for the World Bank Group to engage and invest in environment, natural resource management, and climate change resilience in FCV-affected situations. It further aims at facilitating the integration of a conflict-sensitive lens into World Bank operations and programs addressing natural resource degradation and climate change. The report is divided in six sections: Section 1 sets the Background, Context, and Approach; Section 2 describes the risks associated with the interplay between natural resources, climate change, fragility, and conflict across the conflict cycle; Section 3 connects those causal chains to the delivery of the FCV Strategy across its four pillars; Section 4 showcases a suite of options to improve conflict-sensitive project design and implementation; and Section 5 presents an annotated questionnaire that serves as a complementary tool to the report.