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PublicationCharacterization of Ambient Air Quality in Selected Urban Areas in Uganda: A Low-Cost Approach(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01) Okure, Deo; Bainomugisha, Engineer; Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Soppelsa, Maria EdisaMany cities and urban centers around the world experience high air pollution episodes attributable to increased anthropogenic alterations of natural environmental systems. World Health Organization estimates indicate strong exceedances of prescribed limits in developing countries. However, the evidence on local pollution measures is limited for such cities and Uganda is no exception. Informed by the practical realities of air quality monitoring, this paper employs a low-cost approach using passive and active monitors to obtain characterization of pollution levels based on particulate matter 2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone over a six-month period (starting in December 2018) for selected urban centers in three of the four macro-regions in Uganda. This is the first attempt to comprehensively assess pollution levels at a near-national level in Uganda. A combination of distributed stationary monitors and mobile monitors installed on motorcycle taxis (boda-boda) was employed in selected parishes to obtain spatiotemporal variations in the pollutant concentrations. The results suggest that seasonal particulate levels heavily depend on precipitation patterns with a strong inverse relation, which further corroborates the need for longer monitoring periods to reflect actual seasonal variations. Informed by the observed level of data completeness and quality in all the monitoring scenarios, the paper highlights the practicability and potential of a low-cost approach to air quality monitoring and the potential to use this information to inform citizens. PublicationSupporting the Implementation of Residential Heating Measures in Bulgaria’s National Air Quality Improvement Program and National Air Pollution Control Program(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) World BankThese programs have been prepared by the Government of Bulgaria (GoB) with technical support by the World Bank. In the course of the work it became clear that national and local institutions would face multi- faceted challenges in implementing the NAQIP and NAPCP, relating mainly to overcoming financial, administrative, and technical difficulties. The swift evolution of EU policy frameworks for countering climate change, improving energy security, reducing energy poverty, as well as the need to improve health and wellbeing in Bulgaria, add to those challenges though they may be regarded instead as presenting significant economic opportunities. The NAQIP proposes measures for phasing out the use of thermally inefficient, polluting old stoves and boilers that burn solid fuels, replacing them with cleaner, more efficient heating arrangements. It is expected that the measures will reduce PM10 emissions from the residential heating sector by about 78 percent. Other measures target the road transport sector though its contribution to local emissions is minor in comparison. The NAPCP focuses on meeting air pollutant emission targets for 2030 as required in the Revised NECD. NAQIP measures to reduce PM10 emissions from the residential heating sector are incorporated in full in the NAPCP. Other sectors where policies and measures to reduce emissions were considered have included large combustion plants in the power generation and industrial sectors, road transport, agriculture, and industrial processes. The preparation of these two programs was complemented by capacity strengthening, including the development of tools to help municipalities undertake essential planning and project preparation. All guidance documentation to accompany the tools were collated to form a Resource Toolkit. Communication and coordination issues were also tackled in the engagement. PublicationRegional Note on Air Quality Management in the Western Balkans: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and North Macedonia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-03) World BankAmbient air pollution (AAP) is a serious global health problem that accounts for an estimated 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide per year. People in Eastern Europe and the Western Balkans are frequently exposed to air pollution levels above those considered safe, particularly in the winter. The increased exposure to air pollution and its linkage to higher prevalence of lung, respiratory, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also likely to increase the vulnerability of the affected population to the currently emerging COVID19 pandemic. In the Western Balkans, the residential sector is the largest source of harmful PM2.5 emissions. While not yet the dominant source of air pollution in the Western Balkans, transport-based emissions are gaining in prominence and in contrast to heating represent a year-round growing environmental challenge. The EU accession process provides an incentive to improve air quality in the Western Balkans by adapting legislation and learning from the experience of other EU countries. In addition to strengthening the legal and policy framework for air quality management (AQM) at the national level, it is important to develop subnational solutions, particularly for urban pollution hot spots. By acting on air pollution reduction, countries prepare the grounds for the long-term transition to a low-carbon economy and climate change mitigation, yet the synergies and trade-offs have to be carefully evaluated and understood. PublicationClean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Awe, Yewande; Nygard, Jostein; Larssen, Steinar; Lee, Heejoo; Dulal, Hari; Kanakia, RahulThis report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.