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PublicationArmenia : Child Welfare Note(Washington, DC, 2002-12-09) World BankThis Note was prepared in response to the needs for technical assistance expressed by the the Ministries responsible for child welfare and child protection in Armenia. With the Ministry of Education and with the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Security is developing a child welfare strategy, which will feed into the Poverty Reduction Strategy that is currently being drafted by the Armenian Government. The purpose of this Note is to assist the preparation of the child welfare strategy by identifying major issues in family and child welfare, assessing efficiency and effectiveness of current policies and suggesting measures that would better ensure the well-being and future of Armenia's children. This note discusses the dramatic political, economic, and social changes that Armenia went through over the 1990s. Some of them, especially prolonged economic hardship and extensive out-migration have had a criticial impact on child welfare; they have weakened the capacity of Armenia families to manage risks, as well as the ability of the state to provide meaningful support. Other factors contributing to the current state of child welfare include high poverty risk, low health and nutrition status, lesser access to education, effects of migration, and the increased risk of joining an underclass of children deprived of family upbringing. The government will have to focus on a number of key issues in creating an environment ensuring family and child well-being. PublicationArmenia : Growth Challenges and Government Policies, Volume 1. Main Conclusions and Recommendations(Washington, DC, 2001-11-30) World BankThis report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to systain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.