Other ESW Reports

277 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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  • Publication
    Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 2. Detailed Report
    (Washington, DC, 2002-12-31) World Bank
    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is that more has been expected of Brazil, especially by Brazilians themselves. After all the country is richly endowed with natural resources and is blessed with an energetic people. Perhaps is that economic growth in Brazil has been more erratic than in other countries, or it may be that this economic growth performance has been accompanied by high inequality, thus diminishing the "quality" of growth. How is it that the country with the fastest growth in the region also has the highest inequality? Are the two facts related, and if so, what can be done to improve the pattern of future income growth across the social classes, and reduce its extreme inequality and the breadth and depth of its poverty? The first volume summarizes the overall conclusions for policy drawn from the seven background papers presented in the second volume, and other relevant research, as well as giving a historical account of the driving forces behind Brazilian growth since the 1960s.
  • Publication
    Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 1. Policy Briefing
    (Washington, DC, 2002-12-31) World Bank
    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is that more has been expected of Brazil, especially by Brazilians themselves. After all the country is richly endowed with natural resources and is blessed with an energetic people. Perhaps is that economic growth in Brazil has been more erratic than in other countries, or it may be that this economic growth performance has been accompanied by high inequality, thus diminishing the "quality" of growth. How is it that the country with the fastest growth in the region also has the highest inequality? Are the two facts related, and if so, what can be done to improve the pattern of future income growth across the social classes, and reduce its extreme inequality and the breadth and depth of its poverty? The first volume summarizes the overall conclusions for policy drawn from the seven background papers presented in the second volume, and other relevant research, as well as giving a historical account of the driving forces behind Brazilian growth since the 1960s.
  • Publication
    Kenya - Community Driven Development : Challenges and Opportunities
    (Washington, DC, 2002-06-27) World Bank
    The overall objective of this analytical work is to assess the possibilities for using a community driven development approach in Kenya, to increase formal linkages, downward accountability of service delivery mechanisms, and social inclusiveness in the poverty reduction effort. The report explores relevant policy, and institutional features which color the community driven development (CDD) experience in the country. In the attempt to summarize existing data, and experience on CDD, the focus remains on the various institutional approaches used by different programs. These include a wide spectrum from government and non-government, including a look at the enabling legal, and administrative environment for community mobilization, and civic engagement. Initially, the report provides a background, and introduction to the study, and in analyzing the CDD, aims to inform the Government's the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process, and the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy. It then reviews major policies which had impacted the present socioeconomic circumstances, and attempts at CDD. This policy analysis mainly focuses on institutional issues, covering interactions between provincial administration, central line ministries, and local government, and service delivery. Recommendations suggest the instutionalisation of villages, empowerment and improvement of local authorities functioning, and, the design of a supportive development administration, options viewed not as mutually exclusive, but designed to provoke stakeholder discussions.
  • Publication
    An Assignment of Local Service Delivery and Local Governments in Kenya
    (Washington, DC, 2002-06-25) World Bank
    The report examines the local government sector in Kenya, the reform and decentralization process, and the dynamics of local service delivery. The report is organized in three parts. The first, traces the broad contours of the reform process in Kenya: the inter-governmental system, local government and key local service sectors (such as water, roads, education, and health), and the macro reform processes (such as the public sector reforms, and the Kenya Constitution Review). The second part, reviews the existing systems for local service delivery, including aspects such as institutional arrangements, planning and financing for local services, and the structure, and finances of local governments. The third part focuses on a synthesis of key issues in the reform process, and discusses the strategic directions for both the Bank, and the Department of International Development (DFID), regarding future support to the Government of Kenya for improvements in local service delivery, and related local government reform.
  • Publication
    Together We Stand, Divided We Fall : Levels and Determinants of Social Capital in Argentina
    (Washington, DC, 2002-05-31) World Bank
    The study looks at recent analytical work concerning social issues in Argentina, which suggest both inequality, and unemployment are worsening, aggravated by pessimism and despair - partly shaped by a recession of almost three years - as well as by the inadequacy of public institutions. This study examines the case of Argentina, and draws on its existing social capital as an immediate strategy, and an investment for the future, to assess the role social capital can play within its context. The study finds that aggregate levels of social capital in Argentina are low, outlining that while the social capital of the poor in the country, may enable protection among themselves in times of hardship, it does not help them get ahead in the long-term. Civic associations have proved vulnerable to deep changes in the local social, economic, and political landscape, seemingly due to a historic heritage of authoritarian relations with the state. Thus, the study attempts to promote a dialogue among national actors, and policy makers on the implications of the determinants of social participation, and interpersonal trust. Evidence suggests that less than twenty percent of the population participates in any form of organization, of which, determinants of participation feature the better off, higher educated, or unemployed, while the poorest tend to find the experience unrewarding. The study also measures levels of less structured collective action in response to shocks, as a strategy for interacting with public officials, pointing out that during any form of crisis, Argentines turn to their closest circles of family, or friends, but do not assert their influence on public decisions during prosperous times. Recommendations suggest the creation of an enabling climate for the development of social capital, that provides space for public-private interactions, emphasizing on educational investments, and, creating a culture of information dissemination, and transparency.
  • Publication
    Poverty in India : The Challenge of Uttar Pradesh
    (Washington, DC, 2002-05-08) World Bank
    The report analyzes poverty incidence in India and in particular, in Uttar Pradesh (UP), and defines its poverty levels, trends, and vulnerability. While UP once appeared positioned to be the pace-setter for India's economic, and social development in light of its rich potential in human, and natural resources, economic growth faltered in the 1990s. UP fell behind India's better performing states, and, despite a recent acceleration in growth suggesting the state's performance has been arrested, problems still remain. The report documents poverty along a number of dimensions, i.e., material and human deprivation, where poverty, if measured in terms of material deprivation, is high, and progress at reducing it, has been uneven over the past two decades. Statistics regarding human deprivation, reveal averages, e.g., in literacy well below the all-India average, likewise in female literacy, while mortality rates indicate a much higher ratio than in the country as a whole. Chapter 2 reviews the causes of poverty, stipulating poverty is caused by a scarcity of private assets, where ineffective social programs prevail. Governance, and the policy challenges are examined in Chapter 3, addressing the need to transform UP's public sector, through administrative and civil services reforms to reduce fragmentation, with complementary reforms at the sector levels to improve regulation. To achieve economic growth, Chapter 4 provides recommendations that include improvements in the investment climate, accelerated growth in rural areas, and corrections in gender bias, while Chapter 5 stresses on improving the quality, and access to social services, and safety nets.
  • Publication
    Romania : Local Social Services Delivery Study, Volume 2. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2002-01-16) World Bank
    The study seeks to identify institutional, and procedural factors which may facilitate, or hamper the effectiveness of social services, and inter-governmental fiscal arrangements. Based on existing research on decentralization, the success of decentralized service delivery depends on factors, that include the quality of intergovernmental institutions, a stable fiscal framework, and a well established civil society, and social structure. The study focuses on public social services, where local governments play the greatest role, and, throughout the report, the greatest emphasis is on social assistance benefits, and services, addressing those cash benefits which are delivered, and financed by local governments, including national programs such as birth grants, emergency assistance, and the main poverty alleviation program. In education, the study focuses on compulsory, and secondary education, though it does not address specialized secondary education, which is under the purview of central ministries. The study comprises two volumes: volume 1 provides an overview of the issues, summarizes major findings, and presents policy options; volume 2 includes the detailed discussion, and analysis, and presents the empirical underpinnings of the report. The study finds that fiscal decentralization of poverty alleviation benefits, has undermined its effectiveness, and eroded social safety nets; thus the government is preparing the Minimum Income Guarantee Program Law to centralize financing of social assistance cash benefits. And, education seems to be the policy area with greatest potential for further decentralization, suggesting a careful capacity evaluation to decide whether to attain complete autonomy.
  • Publication
    Armenia : Growth Challenges and Government Policies, Volume 2. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2001-11-30) World Bank
    This report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to systain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.
  • Publication
    Poverty and Income Distribution in a High Growth Economy : The Case of Chile 1987-98, Volume 2. Background Papers
    (Washington, DC, 2001-08-30) World Bank
    The study analyzes Chile's strong economic growth, and well directed social programs, a combination that reduced the poverty rate in half, during a period of just eleven years. The previously noted trends in falling poverty, in terms of incidence, depth, and severity, continued into 1998, and the analysis shows there was unambiguously less poverty between 1994, and 1998, observed at all levels of income. Clearly, income poverty is related to, and impacted by a number of important factors, such as level of education, larger families, or families headed by women, and employment opportunities. Evidence shows Chile achieved considerable improvements in key social indicators, i.e., infant mortality, life expectancy, and educational coverage, for the combination of the three social sector deficit measures of poverty - education, health, and housing - with the income poverty measure, reveals that fifty one percent of all households have neither social sector, nor income deficits. Nonetheless, income inequality remained high by international standards, and appeared to have worsened between 1994-98. Thus, adjusting income inequality for social spending became an important estimate, particularly if social programs were growing. The methodology estimated imputed income transfers from subsidies in the three sectors, and the analysis confirmed that adjustments for in-kind income transfers, substantially reduce the Gini coefficient on income inequality. Results indicate that Chile's success in reducing income disparities through social spending is linked to its system for targeting social programs.
  • Publication
    Poverty and Income Distribution in a High Growth Economy : The Case of Chile 1987-98, Volume 1. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2001-08-30) World Bank
    The study analyzes Chile's strong economic growth, and well directed social programs, a combination that reduced the poverty rate in half, during a period of just eleven years. The previously noted trends in falling poverty, in terms of incidence, depth, and severity, continued into 1998, and the analysis shows there was unambiguously less poverty between 1994, and 1998, observed at all levels of income. Clearly, income poverty is related to, and impacted by a number of important factors, such as level of education, larger families, or families headed by women, and employment opportunities. Evidence shows Chile achieved considerable improvements in key social indicators, i.e., infant mortality, life expectancy, and educational coverage, for the combination of the three social sector deficit measures of poverty - education, health, and housing - with the income poverty measure, reveals that fifty one percent of all households have neither social sector, nor income deficits. Nonetheless, income inequality remained high by international standards, and appeared to have worsened between 1994-98. Thus, adjusting income inequality for social spending became an important estimate, particularly if social programs were growing. The methodology estimated imputed income transfers from subsidies in the three sectors, and the analysis confirmed that adjustments for in-kind income transfers, substantially reduce the Gini coefficient on income inequality. Results indicate that Chile's success in reducing income disparities through social spending is linked to its system for targeting social programs.