Other ESW Reports

287 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Kenya - Community Driven Development : Challenges and Opportunities
    (Washington, DC, 2002-06-27) World Bank
    The overall objective of this analytical work is to assess the possibilities for using a community driven development approach in Kenya, to increase formal linkages, downward accountability of service delivery mechanisms, and social inclusiveness in the poverty reduction effort. The report explores relevant policy, and institutional features which color the community driven development (CDD) experience in the country. In the attempt to summarize existing data, and experience on CDD, the focus remains on the various institutional approaches used by different programs. These include a wide spectrum from government and non-government, including a look at the enabling legal, and administrative environment for community mobilization, and civic engagement. Initially, the report provides a background, and introduction to the study, and in analyzing the CDD, aims to inform the Government's the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process, and the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy. It then reviews major policies which had impacted the present socioeconomic circumstances, and attempts at CDD. This policy analysis mainly focuses on institutional issues, covering interactions between provincial administration, central line ministries, and local government, and service delivery. Recommendations suggest the instutionalisation of villages, empowerment and improvement of local authorities functioning, and, the design of a supportive development administration, options viewed not as mutually exclusive, but designed to provoke stakeholder discussions.
  • Publication
    Together We Stand, Divided We Fall : Levels and Determinants of Social Capital in Argentina
    (Washington, DC, 2002-05-31) World Bank
    The study looks at recent analytical work concerning social issues in Argentina, which suggest both inequality, and unemployment are worsening, aggravated by pessimism and despair - partly shaped by a recession of almost three years - as well as by the inadequacy of public institutions. This study examines the case of Argentina, and draws on its existing social capital as an immediate strategy, and an investment for the future, to assess the role social capital can play within its context. The study finds that aggregate levels of social capital in Argentina are low, outlining that while the social capital of the poor in the country, may enable protection among themselves in times of hardship, it does not help them get ahead in the long-term. Civic associations have proved vulnerable to deep changes in the local social, economic, and political landscape, seemingly due to a historic heritage of authoritarian relations with the state. Thus, the study attempts to promote a dialogue among national actors, and policy makers on the implications of the determinants of social participation, and interpersonal trust. Evidence suggests that less than twenty percent of the population participates in any form of organization, of which, determinants of participation feature the better off, higher educated, or unemployed, while the poorest tend to find the experience unrewarding. The study also measures levels of less structured collective action in response to shocks, as a strategy for interacting with public officials, pointing out that during any form of crisis, Argentines turn to their closest circles of family, or friends, but do not assert their influence on public decisions during prosperous times. Recommendations suggest the creation of an enabling climate for the development of social capital, that provides space for public-private interactions, emphasizing on educational investments, and, creating a culture of information dissemination, and transparency.
  • Publication
    Poverty and Income Distribution in a High Growth Economy : The Case of Chile 1987-98, Volume 1. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2001-08-30) World Bank
    The study analyzes Chile's strong economic growth, and well directed social programs, a combination that reduced the poverty rate in half, during a period of just eleven years. The previously noted trends in falling poverty, in terms of incidence, depth, and severity, continued into 1998, and the analysis shows there was unambiguously less poverty between 1994, and 1998, observed at all levels of income. Clearly, income poverty is related to, and impacted by a number of important factors, such as level of education, larger families, or families headed by women, and employment opportunities. Evidence shows Chile achieved considerable improvements in key social indicators, i.e., infant mortality, life expectancy, and educational coverage, for the combination of the three social sector deficit measures of poverty - education, health, and housing - with the income poverty measure, reveals that fifty one percent of all households have neither social sector, nor income deficits. Nonetheless, income inequality remained high by international standards, and appeared to have worsened between 1994-98. Thus, adjusting income inequality for social spending became an important estimate, particularly if social programs were growing. The methodology estimated imputed income transfers from subsidies in the three sectors, and the analysis confirmed that adjustments for in-kind income transfers, substantially reduce the Gini coefficient on income inequality. Results indicate that Chile's success in reducing income disparities through social spending is linked to its system for targeting social programs.
  • Publication
    Egypt : Social and Structural Review
    (Washington, DC, 2001-06-20) World Bank
    A social and structural review (SSR) identifies the strategic policy priorities that are likely to yield the highest returns in terms of poverty reduction and development. This SSR identifies those priorities by providing a systematic evaluation of economic policy and structure in order to identify a) the main constraints on poverty reduction and long run development in Egypt and b) the sources of vulnerability, particularly as Egypt considers further global integration through entering into foreign trade agreements. The five priorities for reform include: 1) In order to maintain Egypt's robust economic performance of the late 1990s, the Government will need to continue to maintain stability of the macroeconomic environment by strengthening economic management which may have been pushed off-course by exogenous shocks in the latter half of the 1990s. 2) Trade liberalization remains as an unfinished and critical area for further reform. By sharply reducing tariffs and other trade taxes, especially on manufactures, Egypt can achieve productivity gains and wage growth. 3) It is important to revisit government regulations that increase the cost of doing business in Egypt. 4) Expenditures of the bottom half of population appear to be fairly compressed. 5) The quality of life of population is in part determined by public services such as those that enhance health, education, sanitation, clean water, and air quality.
  • Publication
    Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela : Investing in Human Capital for Growth, Prosperity, and Poverty Reduction
    (Washington, DC, 2001-03-30) World Bank
    This report draws on limited, available data to analyze selected economic, and social issues, which include better understanding of poverty, and inequality in relation to real income, and, improving the allocation of social expenditures, while increasing the effectiveness of social programs. The deterioration of social, and human capital should be prevented, by simultaneously promoting its accumulation. The report reviews the dismal economic performance of the country over the last decade, where the inability of policymakers to cope with the oil cycles, and prices decline prevails. Moreover, the country's dependence on the oil sector has deepened, while the share of agriculture, and manufacturing decreased, aggravated by the lack of export diversification, and the negative impact of the overvalued domestic currency on external competitiveness. Not surprisingly, labor productivity also decreased, reflecting a low real economic growth, which results in higher unemployment, poverty and inequality increases. The needed acceleration of human, and social capital development focuses on education, health, and the decline of crime and violence, suggesting continued implementation of primary education reforms, through the development of new curriculum, improved quality of basic education, and educational financing. Health recommendations include efficient resource allocation, prioritization of high-impact programs, and expanded private participation, and institutional development.
  • Publication
    Mexico : Institutional Coordination for Regional Sustainable Development
    (Washington, DC, 2000-04) World Bank
    This report analyzes, through a review of the regulatory framework, case studies, and international experiences, current arrangements for coordination of government programs in priority regions in Mexico, as well as opportunities for better addressing the development needs of those regions via enhanced coordination. The broad hypotheses underpinning the analysis are: 1) Poor coordination (within government and between government and civil society) impedes the effective use of government resources (and the mobilization of private ones) in backward regions. 2) Participatory planning fora at the regional (i.e., inter-municipal) level may provide an institutional and operational framework through which those impediments can be removed. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 reviews the recent evolution of regional development policies. Chapter 3 develops a conceptual framework for analyzing horizontal and coordination problems as they relate to regional policies. Chapter 4 discusses the normative framework for coordination developed in Mexico's laws and regulations. Chapter 5 analyzes current challenges to, and opportunities for, effective coordination in Mexico on the basis of four case studies. Chapter 6 discusses international experiences with horizontal and vertical coordination in several Latin American countries, as well as the relevance and applicability of those lessons to Mexico. Finally, chapter 7 develops tentative recommendations.