Other ESW Reports

276 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    The Effects of Matching Grants on Technology Startups: The Case of Korea’s TIPS
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) World Bank
    This report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients’ performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea’s policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
  • Publication
    Digitalizing SMEs to Boost Competitiveness
    (Washington, DC, 2022-10) World Bank
    While Malaysia’s digital economy had already been growing rapidly over the past decade, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has further accelerated this trend. In particular, increased access to digital platforms has enabled businesses of all sizes to mitigate the crisis’ adverse impacts. At the same time, the depth and breadth of small and medium enterprise (SME) digitalization has remained limited, suggesting a growing risk of digital divide in the country. This report analyzes opportunities and challenges for Malaysian SMEs to better leverage digital tools and platforms to increase their productivity and competitiveness. It is structured around three complementary analytical pillars: (i) a digital business landscape diagnostic presenting the extent of digitalization and use of digital platforms among SMEs in traditional sectors, and the constraints that SMEs still face to digitalize; (ii) an institutional and policy mapping reviewing the government of Malaysia’s efforts to foster SME digitalization; and (iii) a digital market regulations assessment evaluating the adequacy of Malaysia’s digital regulatory environment, to identify shortcomings that may undermine SMEs’ capacity to access and benefit from the use of digital platforms. The analysis has been undertaken with a view to inform the implementation of the Malaysia Digital Blueprint (MyDIGITAL).
  • Publication
    Tightening Demand to Maintain Macroeconomic Balances : Lao PDR Economic Monitor, November 2012
    (World Bank, Vientiane, 2012-11) World Bank
    Global and regional economic development continues to face uncertainties in 2012. East Asia and the Pacific region's growth is estimated to slow down compared to 2011, but remains robust compared with other regions thanks to sustained domestic investment and consumption. Lao PDR continues to maintain robust growth this year but faces a challenge to manage domestic demand. On the supply side, the construction, services, industry and agriculture sectors are the main drivers of growth; while on the demand side, public spending and private investment including demand driven by preparations for the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) has played an important role in boosting the economy this year. In spite of robust growth, inflation has been declining, mostly on account of declining food and fuel inflation. However, home-grown and external risks associated with low reserves coverage, increased exposure to mining revenues, fast banking expansion with limited supervision capacity and a large number of newly announced large investment projects warrant close monitoring to preserve macroeconomic stability and sustainable growth. Stronger than expected revenue performance from the mining sector and external grants contributed to an improvement in the fiscal performance in FY11/12.With the contribution of mining revenue increasing, closely monitoring commodity price fluctuations is becoming increasingly important. The fiscal deficit in FY12/13 is expected to slightly widen as a result of a planned wage increase. Strong pressure on external reserves calls for tightening of aggregate demand. Credit growth remains high and is putting pressure on falling reserves. Credit growth has picked up in June 2012 driven by increased credit to the private sector and SOEs. Private sector credit growth is driven by buoyant performance in construction, manufacturing and service sectors. The Bank of Lao PDR's disbursements to local infrastructure projects have moderated compared to their peak in 2009, but are ongoing as a result of previous commitments.
  • Publication
    Sustaining Robust Growth, Mitigating Risks and Deepening Reforms : Lao PDR Economic Monitor, May 2012
    (World Bank, Vientiane, 2012-05) World Bank
    With development soaring in construction, manufacturing, mining and services, Lao PDR's economic outlook in 2012 is positive. As the driving force behind the domestic economy, these sectors are anticipated to drive a projected growth of 8.3 percent by year-end. To begin, higher wholesale and trading, tourism as well as transport and telecommunications will impact the service sector this year. A construction boom is also on the horizon supported by the preparation for the 9th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Vientiane Capital. With this said, construction will support the manufacturing sector with the additional demand for cement and construction materials. Food and beverages will also expand in response to sustained domestic demand. Additionally, Phu Bia mining company's upgrade of existing copper and new gold and silver projects will generate more output from the mining sector. On the other hand, the power sector will contribute less in comparison to last year, despite the operation of Nam Ngum 5 hydropower project. In the mean time, agricultural output is expected to rebound after the adverse impacts of 2011's floods. Despite this robust growth, the medium-term outlook remains subject to uncertainty in external markets. In 2011, the National Assembly revised and approved the general tax law introducing public finance to a transparent, turnover based presumptive tax regime for businesses with a turnover below the Value-Added Tax (VAT) registration threshold. In effect, this law eliminated minimum business tax. Finally, the implementation of the 'one-stop' service (as stipulated on the enterprise law and the new investment promotion law) commenced in October 2011.
  • Publication
    Lao PDR Economic Monitor : November 2008
    (World Bank, Vientiane, 2008-11) World Bank
    The Lao PDR economy continues to grow, but at a relatively slower pace as the impacts of the global financial turmoil are starting to be felt. Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth is expected to slow in 2008 to about 7 percent as result of the impacts of the global financial crisis. GDP growth is also projected to slow to between 5 and 6 percent in 2009. However, growth remains fairly strong and still driven by the ongoing hydropower projects as well as agro processing industries, construction and other services. The resource sector contributes over 2 percent and non-resource sectors another 5 percent to the growth rate in 2008. In addition to domestic consumption, medium-term growth will be sensitive to changes in global commodity prices (mainly metals and agriculture) as well as to demand and investment from neighboring countries (especially Thailand, China and Vietnam). It reports on recent economic performance (Part I), progress in the implementation of the Government's policy reform agenda (Part II), and donor activities in the relevant reform areas (Part III).
  • Publication
    Lao PDR Economic Monitor, April 2008
    (World Bank, Vientiane, 2008-04) World Bank
    Lao PDR's economic outlook remains favorable, with continued strong growth. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth remained at above 7 percent in 2007. Output expanded in mining, newly emerging processing industries, agriculture, and new construction of hydropower projects, tourism and other services. Non-resource sectors contributed over 5 percent to this growth, and the resource sector around 2.5 percent. As Lao PDR is surrounded by some of the fastest growing economies in the world, it has benefited from increased demands for its products and large FDI inflows from neighboring countries, such as China, Vietnam and Thailand. The macroeconomic situation remained fairly stable, but is at risk of rising inflation. After falling to a record low level of 4.5 percent in 2007, overall inflation climbed to 6.4 percent in February 2008. High fuel prices pushed up the costs of transportation for individuals and households, construction (including imported raw materials and other chemical related products), land clearing and agricultural farming (including processing materials). The kip nominal exchange rates appreciated almost by 9 percent against US$ and was steady against the Thai baht during the last six to months from Oct 2007 to Mar 2008. It reports on recent economic performance (Part I), progress in the implementation of the Government's policy reform agenda (Part II), and donor activities in the relevant reform areas (Part III).
  • Publication
    Enabling East Asian Communities to Drive Local Development
    (Washington, DC, 2007-12-01) Worl
    Local development activities have profound impact on poor people's welfare. Communities and local governments interact closest to where people live and where essential public services are delivered, such as local transport, water supply, health and education. Vibrant local development requires productive, balanced interaction between empowered communities and capable and accountable local governments. For this interface to function best, well-organized, well-informed communities demand development results, holding local authorities to account and, through participation in decisions and oversight of public service delivery, ensure that those authorities remain effective and open to citizen input. In tandem, local governments supply the capacity to deliver services, reliable resources and a desire to meet local citizens' needs. As a vision for local development, the supply of and demand for effective and responsive government are well-matched. In section one, this report lays out the scope of CDD operations in East Asia and presents three frameworks for organizing them: according to local government context, sectoral scope, and primary development objectives. Organizing six results hypotheses according to a generic CDD results template; section two presents available evidence from East Asia's CDD experience. And section three summarizes lessons learned from this flagship effort.
  • Publication
    Lao PDR Economic Monitor, November 2007
    (World Bank, Vientiane, 2007-11) World Bank
    The information presented in the Lao Economic Monitor covers economic developments that have occurred in Lao PDR in the last six months (between May and October 2007). It reports on recent economic performance (Part I), progress in the implementation of the Government's policy reform agenda (Part II), and donor activities in the relevant reform areas (Part III). The report points out that Lao PDR macroeconomic performance continues to be strong, and the impact of resource sector is increasing. Real GDP growth continued to be robust at 7.6 percent in 2006 and is expected to remain above 7 percent in 2007. Manufacturing and other non-resource sectors continued to grow moderately, contributing around 5 percentage points of the above growth. However, other significant part of economic growth was contributed by the resource sectors, especially by the expansion of copper extraction and construction of large hydropower projects.
  • Publication
    Indonesia : Selected Fiscal Issues in a New Era
    (Washington, DC, 2003-02-14) World Bank
    Despite the substantial progress in managing its fiscal challenges post-1997 financial crisis, Indonesia's risks to the budget have not disappeared, though the Government continues to be committed to fiscal consolidation. While debt sustainability is improving, the budget remains vulnerable to shocks, and, large non-discretionary spending (interest payments, transfers to the regions, personnel spending) still constrain the use of fiscal policy for macroeconomic stabilization, and social risk protection, and, as the fiscal situation improves, and decentralization proceeds, a rethinking of resource allocation becomes necessary. This report assesses Indonesia's progress in dealing with challenges that have altered the fiscal system since the crisis, and reviews options for fiscal consolidation, as well as sectoral issues in the new decentralized environment, including public expenditure management reforms. Suggestions include an increased revenue mobilization to make the budget more risk proof, and an improved tax administration, rather than streamlining the tax structure alone, while the Government's decision to eliminate the fuel subsidy remains critical for fiscal consolidation (which has little social implications). Moreover, the large interest payments burden incurred during the crisis, is crowding out development spending, and similarly, increased transfers to local governments are limiting discretionary spending (which could be accompanied by a decrease in central development spending in areas of regional responsibilities). A refinement of the budget management system is necessary, where the Finance Law would be instrumental in establishing accountability between the Executive, and Parliament.
  • Publication
    Indonesia : The Imperative for Reform
    (Washington, DC, 2001-11) World Bank
    In the one hundred days since assuming office, the new administration of Megawati Soekarnoputri has made little progress on structural and governance reforms. The events of September 11 and the slowdown in the global economy worsened the investment climate in Indonesia, adding to the government's already formidable array of challenges. Indonesia's recovery has lagged behind its neighbors and over half its population vulnerable to poverty, more than any other crisis country. Moreover, its fragile banking and corporate sectors, and the precarious state of its government finances, make the country highly vulnerable to risks--with immediate implications for fiscal sustainability. Donors need to be realistic about what is feasible, given strong vested interests, severe institutional weaknesses, the uncertainties arising from decentralization, and a turbulent transition to democracy. Progress is most needed in the key areas of structural reforms, good governance, and empowering and investing in the poor. Together with fiscal sustainability, they are consistent with the premise that stability, growth, and effective government are the key ingredients for long-lasting and sustainable poverty reduction.