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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-11) World BankThe purpose of this paper is to provide a practical framework to guide governments in catalyzing and scaling up public and private investment in Blue Carbon as part of their blue economy development. It does this by describing in detail a Blue Carbon Readiness Framework, a step-by-step, well-illustrated guide with simple checklists. Client countries can use the illustrations and checklists to determine their readiness to catalyze and scale up investment in blue carbon credit finance. The Blue Carbon Readiness Framework consists of three pillars: 1. Data and Analytics; 2. Policy and Institutions; 3. Finance.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2023-06-01) World BankLack of fiscal space and the quest for better efficiency in projects and programs have led to increasing interest in public-private partnerships (PPPs) globally. PPPs are more complex than similar publicly procured projects and require upfront project development expenses that could be significant. Therefore, public entities seek to understand as much as possible about each project before undertaking expensive studies, project structuring, and procurement, which brings to the fore the need for good upstream project selection techniques and methodologies. A review of early-stage PPP screening practices in various countries indicates that a mix of drivers determines PPP project success, often making it difficult for policy makers and practitioners to understand and select projects for further development as PPPs. Complete reliance on quantitative criteria has not worked well, with the result that in the past few years, countries have been opting to combine these with qualitative aspects. Often, screening methodologies have been created based on a country’s policy drivers and areas of focus. Although countries follow different methodologies for screening projects, there are certain common principles used by all. The PPP Project Screening and Analytics Tool (PSAT, or Tool) 2.0 is a Microsoft Excel Visual Basic–based decision-making tool that can be used by countries for the screening and prioritizing of climate resilient PPP projects. The Tool was developed by the Infrastructure Finance, Public-Private Partnerships and Guarantees global practice (IPG) at the World Bank. In 2023 climate change parameters were integrated into the tool and this user manual was updated accordingly. This document is a detailed guide that provides step-by-step instructions on the use of the PSAT 2.0. The User Guide also delves into the mechanics of the PSAT 2.0 and guides the user to customize the Tool to cater to specific requirements.
The Big Push for Transformation through Climate and Development: Recommendations of the High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable and Inclusive Recovery and Growth(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-02) World Bank Group ; International Monetary Fund ; London School of Economics and Political Science ; Brookings InstitutionThis report makes the case for a big investment push for EMDEs’ sustainable recovery and development, assesses the magnitude and composition of such investment, presents actions needed for an energy transition, looks at the role that innovations and state capacity can play in facilitating GRID, and proposes actions that governments, the private sector, MDBs, the IMF, and donors can undertake to mobilize financing at the large scale needed. The report summarizes the insights derived from the meetings of the High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) on Sustainable and Inclusive Recovery and Growth, jointly led by Mari Pangestu, Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, and Nicholas Stern, and composed of experts from research institutions, the private sector, and governments, as well as senior World Bank Group and IMF staff members. The work of the HLAG, and thus this report, focuses on EMDEs and delves in greater depth into climate investment and financing, particularly for energy transition, as it is a less researched area. While doing so, it recognizes that policy and investment decisions in high-income countries, which accounted for only 16 percent of the global population in 2019 and yet for 32 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions (World Bank 2023a, 2023b), will be critical to whether the Paris Agreement goals can be reached. It also recognizes that these countries must play a key role in contributing financially to EMDEs’ transition to low-carbon economies.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-01) Ranger, Nicola Ann ; Mahul, Olivier ; Monasterolo, IreneClimate change has become a main concern of ministries of finance, central banks, and financial regulators. In response, a suite of scenarios and tools have been developed tthe potential scale of climate risks and underprice investments in resilience. This is particularly important for emerging markets and developing economies where exposure to physical climate risks is already high and is expected to further increase with climate change. The paper identifies five areas, or risk drivers, that make a material contribution to physical climate risks to the financial sector and that are not consistently included in current scenarios and tools: (1) extreme weather events; (2) uncertainties in climate models; (3) compound scenarios; (4) indirect economic impacts of shocks; and (5) feedback between the real economy and the financial sector. We derive a framework for generating scenarios to assess acute physical climate-related financial risks, which is inspired by the “Realistic Disaster Scenarios” that are used in risk management and supervision in the insurance sector. The framework is illustrated through an application of the EIRIN macroeconomic model. This framework aims to complement recent work by the Network of Central Banks and Supervisors for Greening the Financial System (NGFS) and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) to inform ministries of finance, central banks, financial regulators, and financial institutions on climate financial risk assessments, both for micro- and macroprudential risk management, and to incorporate climate risks into wider financial decision making and disclosures.o assess the financial risks from physical climate shocks (for example, hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, flooding). However, those scenarios do not fully capture such shocks, which could lead financial institutions to underestimate.