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PublicationBrazil - Minas Gerais - World Bank Partnership : Building on a Strong Foundation and Leading to Next Steps(2007-06-06) World BankThis document, Minas Gerais World Bank partnership: building on a strong foundation and leading to next steps, points the direction for next steps and emphasizes the elements and principles of a possible follow-up operation to the Development Policy Loan (DPL) that completed disbursement in April 2007, recognizing that it was premature to discuss the specifics of such an operation during this exercise. These elements and principles would provide the incentives and motivations for the choice of focus sectors under a possible Bank operation with Minas Gerais. Lead actively by the Governor and Deputy Governor, the Minas authorities have clearly identified enhancing the living conditions of citizens in the state as the overall priority. Nevertheless, the Minas Gerais targets are ambitious and by international standards there is ample room for additional progress. The report points out that fiscal policies and public sector reforms in Minas Gerais could be expected to yield continued stronger than national average economic growth and progress in creating jobs. The focus of this Partnership document is mainly on the Plano Mineiro de Desenvolvimento Integrado (PMDI) 2007-2023 long-term development strategy with an emphasis on broadening reforms. In short, the sectoral assessments are at the heart of the Partnership dialogue and could be used as the foundation for future development of the relationship, especially in areas of technical assistance or future Bank operations with Minas Gerais. PublicationBrazil : Jobs Report, Volume 1. Policy Briefing(Washington, DC, 2002-12-20) World BankThis report, conducted jointly by researchers in Brazil and at the World Bank, aims to address the debate on how the Brazilian labor market functions. It does so not by focusing on labor market functioning but on its outcomes. What is central are labor market outcomes, such as adequate employment growth so that job-seekers can find gainful employment, acceptable worker productivity levels that are fairly compensated, and reasonable income security for workers and their households. This report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 argues that labor laws have begun to show signs of obsolescence. Chapter 2 shows this is reflected in deteriorating outcomes. Key indicators--employment growth, labor force participation, unemployment rates, and income security--all point to worsening labor market functioning since the mid-1990s. The report then examines how changed macroeconomic circumstances call for changes in labor market institutions, regulations, and interventions. Using a characterization of the economy in which informality has a central role, Chapter 3 illustrates the correspondence between the three main macroeconomic phenomena of the 1990s--greater openness, stabilization, and fiscal adjustment--and Brazil's labor market priorities. Chapter 4 concludes that the labor market has signaled the shortage of educated workers since the 1990s, and the onus is now on the education and training systems to respond. Analysis of how Brazil's labor market functions in Chapter 5 points to evidence that indicates that Brazil's poorer workers and smaller firms are especially disadvantaged by how the labor market functions. The report identifies three sets of priorities for reform: changes in mandated non-wage benefits and minimum wage setting to price labor correctly and encourage empoloyment growth (Chapter 6), changes in severance legislation and functioning of labor courts to better align incentives and increase productivity (Chapter 7), and improvements in interventions to increase income security for all workers (Chapter 8). Chapter 9 summarizes and highlights the main policy implications. Volume 2 contains in-depth examination of the issues of interest in Brazil and the relevant international experience, on which Chapters 1 through 8 of the first volume are based. PublicationBrazil - Financing Municipal Investment : Issues and Options(Washington, DC, 2001-04-20) World BankThis report explores alternative ways to finance municipal capital expenditures while maintaining macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. It tries to estimate the financing effort that municipalities will need to make in order to meet the demand for infrastructure services over the next five to 10 years, taking into account the municipalities' expected resources from local taxes, user charges, and intergovernmental transfers. The report is organized into six chapters. The introduction describes the overall problem, main issues, methodology, and analytical framework. Chapter 2 explains the context under which municipalities operate, and it identifies the main financial trends in the sector. Chapter 3 discusses how to increase municipal current savings to enable municipal governments to finance investment and leverage borrowing. Chapter 4 focuses how to ensure that the existing municipal credit systems operate efficiently, that municipalities with "good" projects find adequate long-term financing, and that credit is allocated more by market rules and less by political factors. Chapters 5 and 6 discusses how to support the involvement of the private sector in the financing of municipal infrastructure and in helping the transition toward less regulated credit systems.