Items in this collection
PublicationNon-Profit Organizations TF Risk Assessment Tool: Identifying the FATF NPOs at Risk of Terrorist Financing Abuse - Guidance Manual(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThe National Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment (NRA) Toolkit has been developed by World Bank Group (WBG) staff members to support WBG client countries and jurisdictions in self-assessing their money laundering and terrorist financing risks.The nonprofit organization (NPO) tool of the NRA Tool serves as an instrument that jurisdictions can use to support their analyses of the terrorist financing abuse of NPOs. Through it, the Working Group will identify NPOs that meet the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) definition, assess the evidence of NPO abuse for terrorist financing, determine the inherent risk (exposure to active terrorist threat), and review the quality of existing mitigation measures. This analysis should seek to complement and draw on national terrorism and terrorist financing risk assessments. PublicationVirtual Assets and Virtual Asset Service Providers ML/ TF Risk Assessment Tool: Guidance Manual(Washington, DC, 2022) World BankThe World Bank’s VA and VASP ML/TF Risk Assessment Tool (VA-RA) and this Guidance, aims to assist countries in assessing the ML/TF risks of VA activities and the service providers in the financial and non-financial sectors involved in these activities. It outlines the steps and explanations to assist countries to understand the ML/TF risks associated with VA activities. It examines VA activities and VASPs that fall within the scope of the FATF Recommendations, as these VASPs have the same full set of obligations as financial institutions or Designated Non-Financial Businesses or Professions (DNFBPs). It also considers other actors within the technology providers sector that may fall within the definition of FATF VASPs if they provide any of the functions defined in the FATF Recommendation 15. PublicationInformality in Colombia : Implications for Worker Welfare and Firm Productivity(World Bank, 2010-03-01) World BankThe level of informality in Colombia's labor market is high and persistent. When measuring informality of workers in terms of their contributions to health insurance and pension systems, 74.2 percent of all Colombian labor force was considered informal in 2008. The informality debate has taken on a new sense of urgency, as Colombia's robust economic growth in recent years has not led to significant declines in informality. Even during the period of high economic growth experienced between 2001 and 2007, the share of workers in the informal sector remained very high. This report presents new insights to develop a better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of informality and its implications for social policies. The study analyzes informality using the conceptual framework presented in the World Bank flagship study on informality (Perry et al 2007), which shows that informality in the region is a function of both exclusion and exit, with some workers and firms opting out of the formal sector based on their assessment of the relative benefits and costs of formality versus informality. The focus of this report is on exploring options to enhance worker welfare and firm productivity through access to public goods and services, including social protection and productive inputs. Hence, the report adopts definitions and measures of informality separate measures for workers and firms that directly capture the extent to which they are linked to the state and, thus, to public goods and services. PublicationBrazil - Minas Gerais - World Bank Partnership : Building on a Strong Foundation and Leading to Next Steps(2007-06-06) World BankThis document, Minas Gerais World Bank partnership: building on a strong foundation and leading to next steps, points the direction for next steps and emphasizes the elements and principles of a possible follow-up operation to the Development Policy Loan (DPL) that completed disbursement in April 2007, recognizing that it was premature to discuss the specifics of such an operation during this exercise. These elements and principles would provide the incentives and motivations for the choice of focus sectors under a possible Bank operation with Minas Gerais. Lead actively by the Governor and Deputy Governor, the Minas authorities have clearly identified enhancing the living conditions of citizens in the state as the overall priority. Nevertheless, the Minas Gerais targets are ambitious and by international standards there is ample room for additional progress. The report points out that fiscal policies and public sector reforms in Minas Gerais could be expected to yield continued stronger than national average economic growth and progress in creating jobs. The focus of this Partnership document is mainly on the Plano Mineiro de Desenvolvimento Integrado (PMDI) 2007-2023 long-term development strategy with an emphasis on broadening reforms. In short, the sectoral assessments are at the heart of the Partnership dialogue and could be used as the foundation for future development of the relationship, especially in areas of technical assistance or future Bank operations with Minas Gerais. PublicationFinancial Sector Assessment : Guatemala(Washington, DC, 2007-03) World BankThis Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the findings of a joint World Bank -International Monetary Fund Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) team which visited Guatemala from October 27 to November 10, 2005 to update the 2001 FSAP report. It contains information as of late 2005. In spite of major progress since 2001, the update found the Guatemalan financial system still faces four main stability and development challenges: (i) to improve the transparency and quality of information of the financial and economic systems; (ii)to strengthen the regulatory framework of the financial system and its implementation; (iii) to move supervision towards a risk-based approach; and (iv) to complete financial markets to diversify the system and enhance intermediation and access. Each of these challenges is discussed in depth in the report. PublicationArgentina : Facing the Challenge of Ageing and Social Security(Washington, DC, 2007-01) World BankThis report, Argentina facing the challenge of ageing and social security, is structured in five parts that follow the introduction and summary of main findings. Part I presents a conceptual framework for decision makers charged with crafting policies for old age income security, and describes the evolution and structure of Argentina's pension institutions. Part II presents the findings of the household empirical analysis using existing surveys and the new data from the ETEEP, including the importance of pensions to household income and poverty, the micro-determinants of coverage, and the viability of other income security strategies for the most vulnerable. Part III focuses solely on policies and programs designed to ensure minimum income and cover poverty in old age, presenting estimates of the fiscal cost of proposals made by the principal actors and stake-holders in the pension reform debate. Part IV examines the main pension policy issues in this debate and places these issues in international context. Part V presents some options for the Government and stakeholders to consider as Argentina enters a more detailed and deliberate phase of defining pension reform. PublicationBrazil : Jobs Report, Volume 1. Policy Briefing(Washington, DC, 2002-12-20) World BankThis report, conducted jointly by researchers in Brazil and at the World Bank, aims to address the debate on how the Brazilian labor market functions. It does so not by focusing on labor market functioning but on its outcomes. What is central are labor market outcomes, such as adequate employment growth so that job-seekers can find gainful employment, acceptable worker productivity levels that are fairly compensated, and reasonable income security for workers and their households. This report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 argues that labor laws have begun to show signs of obsolescence. Chapter 2 shows this is reflected in deteriorating outcomes. Key indicators--employment growth, labor force participation, unemployment rates, and income security--all point to worsening labor market functioning since the mid-1990s. The report then examines how changed macroeconomic circumstances call for changes in labor market institutions, regulations, and interventions. Using a characterization of the economy in which informality has a central role, Chapter 3 illustrates the correspondence between the three main macroeconomic phenomena of the 1990s--greater openness, stabilization, and fiscal adjustment--and Brazil's labor market priorities. Chapter 4 concludes that the labor market has signaled the shortage of educated workers since the 1990s, and the onus is now on the education and training systems to respond. Analysis of how Brazil's labor market functions in Chapter 5 points to evidence that indicates that Brazil's poorer workers and smaller firms are especially disadvantaged by how the labor market functions. The report identifies three sets of priorities for reform: changes in mandated non-wage benefits and minimum wage setting to price labor correctly and encourage empoloyment growth (Chapter 6), changes in severance legislation and functioning of labor courts to better align incentives and increase productivity (Chapter 7), and improvements in interventions to increase income security for all workers (Chapter 8). Chapter 9 summarizes and highlights the main policy implications. Volume 2 contains in-depth examination of the issues of interest in Brazil and the relevant international experience, on which Chapters 1 through 8 of the first volume are based. PublicationParaguay : Financial Sector Review(Washington, DC, 2002-11-15) World BankThe report examines the highly vulnerable situation of the financial system in Paraguay, which suffered from a banking crisis in 1995-98, in addition to recent competitive devaluations of the Brazilian currency, the fall in cotton prices, as well as the regional economic slowdown. A major factor obscuring the reality of banking system solvency, is the practice of substituting needed loan provisions, with collaterals which underlie the loans. The main issue here is the relative liquidity absence, and delays inherent in unwinding such collateral, as well as its potential over-valuation, making it an ineffective substitute for cash provisions. The report further examines banking reforms, and restructuring of the state-owned banks, institutional and regulatory framework, and the safety net mechanisms and deposit insurance governing the system. It is suggested the reform of the pension system is crucial at this juncture, given that the current pay-as-you-go social security public pension system, is not fiscally sustainable from an actuarial, and benefits payment perspective, and, because the current system, even at its best, delivers very low returns on pension investment funds. Most importantly, for both the public, and private systems, the investment regime should permit heavy weighting in foreign hard currency securities. PublicationMexico : Technology, Wages and Employment, Volume 2. Technical Papers(Washington, DC, 2001-12-13) World BankThe report examines two components of new technology adoption by Mexican manufacturing firms. First, it questions which firms, under what circumstances, and performance adopt such technology. To measure performance, productivity wages, and net employment of a firm were used, leading to further questions on whether technological change helps workers - of a certain skill level - disproportionately. Second, it argues that adoption of new technologies happens under the right circumstances, and further reviews which are the firms, and circumstances surrounding the choice of technology. The analysis is based on data from the National Survey of Employment, Wages, Technology and Training (ENESTYC), and the National Industrial Survey (EIA) for 1992, 1995, and 1999. Results largely suggest that performance (including statistics, and measures on job creation, and/or job dislocation), is superior with technology adoption, though it does not imply performance increases in all firms. Rather, the effects of technology vary depending on location, and size of enterprise. Nonetheless, investments in human capital - training in conjunction with technology adoption - increases productivity benefits. In addition, the likelihood for new technologies, also varies markedly by time period, and, the complexity of the technology correlates both with the size, and skill levels of a firm's work force. Policy recommendations include widespread technology know-how, facilitating inter-firm linkages, supported by both government financing to encourage a competitive business environment, and by a continued increase in research and development funding, public as well as private funding. PublicationMexico : Land Policy--A Decade after the Ejido Reform(Washington, DC, 2001-06-15) World BankThis study aims to assess the extent to which reforms have actually been implemented, the impact they have had on the rural population, and the challenges which, as a consequence, need to be addressed by the new administration. This report is organized as follows: Section 1 describes Mexico's rural economy. It reviews the broad context of macro, trade, and sector-level reforms, the strengths and weaknesses of both the productive and socio-economic structure of agriculture and the social sector, highlighting in particular the socio-economic and natural resource characteristics that make the ejido sector central to Mexico's development. Section 2 details the rationale behind the 1992 legal reforms intended to to end almost a century of politically motivated interventions in the internal structure of te ejido and improve the functioning of land and labor markets in the social sector. This section reviews the way reforms were implemented, the procedural safeguards adopted to prevent abuse, and the advances, both in terms of numbers as well as impact, made in implementing them. Section 3 assesses PROCEDE (the National Certifcation Program of Ejido Rights and Urban Lots) and its impact on the functioning of land rental and sales markets, ejidatarios' access to credit, and investment. Section 4 sums up policy recommendations in six key areas, including land policy, completion of PROCEDE, and ensuring the sustainability of the advances made under PROCEDE.