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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World BankThe report is organized in four chapters. Chapter 1 describes trends in growth, productivity, demography, employment, and living standards to inform the analysis of labor supply and labor demand carried out in the chapters that follow. The chapter starts by depicting aggregate trends in economic growth and living standards of the Tunisian population, the drivers of growth (e.g. remittances and migration, FDI, exchange rate, productivity, etc.), and broad structural changes in terms of job creation and labor productivity growth. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the composition of the labor market and how it has changed over time, including demographics and labor force participation, employment and employment composition in terms of type of job, industrial sector, occupation both at the aggregate level and for different population groups based on gender, age, educational level, and geographical location. It turns the spotlight on two groups that face particular difficulties in accessing the labor market, namely women and youth, and advances hypotheses regarding key barriers to their engagement in the labor market. Chapter 3 shifts the focus to one of the most relevant dimensions that characterize the Tunisian labor market, namely the distinction between the public sector, formal and informal employment. The chapter investigates how individual characteristics are correlated with the probability of working in different types of employment; it provides an overview of recent trends in wages and of conditional wage gaps along a number of dimensions (men/women, public/private, formal/informal employment); and it illustrates how wage workers with different characteristics, in particular different educational endowments, benefit from the labor market. Finally, building on the findings of Chapter 1, Chapter 4 examines recent trends in the patterns of structural and spatial transformation along the employment and fi rm dimension. It provides an overview of the firm landscape in terms of size, industrial sector, geographical area as well as recent trends in fi rms’ performance, dynamics, labor decisions and capital investments, as well as constraints and opportunities firms face.
Publication(World Bank, 2011-03) World BankThis toolkit for analyzing public expenditures in agriculture contributes to a broader effort to enhance the focus, quality, and appropriate scaling of public spending in the sector. More specifically, the toolkit has two goals: to provide checklists for practitioners conducting various kinds of agriculture public expenditure analyses, and to provide selected examples on aspects of the checklist to help guide analysis. The toolkit presents a diversity of approaches and describes experiences both positive and negative in conducting agricultural public spending analyses in different settings and with different objectives. It offers checklists of issues and options, rather than a minimum list of issues to be covered. Needs, existing work time, and budget constraints will likely drive the selection of the checklist topics to be covered in any given analysis of public expenditures. The toolkit is organized to facilitate this selectivity of topic, while maintaining a strategic perspective. The supporting examples draw on numerous analyses of public expenditures in agricultures.