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PublicationPartnering with the World Bank through Trust Funds and Umbrella 2.0 Programs: A Guide for Development Partners(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-14) World BankThis Guide provides a brief overview of World Bank Trust Funds—what they are, what they fund, and the operating environment in which they are managed. It also describes the Umbrella 2.0 Program, an approach to organizing and managing trust funds for greater development impact. In addition, it highlights and provides links to key policies underpinning implementation of activities carried out by the World Bank or by recipients of its funds—policies that apply equally to activities funded by trust fund contributions. PublicationTrading Towards Sustainability: The Role of Trade Policies in Indonesia’s Green Transformation(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) Montfaucon, Angella Faith; Lakatos, Csilla; Agnimaruto, Bayu; Silberring, Jana MirjamClimate change - and efforts to mitigate and adapt to it - will affect global flows of trade and Indonesia’s ability to transition to a more environmentally sustainable economy on its path to become a high-income economy is, therefore, interlinked with trade policy. Environmental policy stringency (EPS) is increasing around the globe - a crucial challenge lies in harmonizing these with sustained economic growth, yet both goals can be reached. Although trade flows facilitate emissions, they are also a critical part of the solution, including through trade in environmental goods (EGs) and plastic substitutes - with important economic spillovers. This report provides a detailed analysis of the role of trade and trade policy on EGs and plastic substitutes in Indonesia’s green transition. Chapter one describes the need for, and urgency of, this transition, by looking at the carbon intensity of Indonesia’s trade, the impacts of environmental policies of Indonesia and key trading partners, and the roles of EGs. Chapter two examines where Indonesia stands on the level of trade in EGs and plastic substitutes and the competitiveness of EGs trade. Chapter three explores trade agreements and tariffs and simulates potential impacts of tariff reforms - including through multilateral actions. Chapter four examines what non-tariff measures (NTMs) apply on the products including inputs of firms exporting EGs and assesses which NTMs may be costly. Finally, chapter five concludes with policy recommendations. PublicationThe Effects of Matching Grants on Technology Startups: The Case of Korea’s TIPS(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) World BankThis report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients’ performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea’s policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism. PublicationEstablishing Efficient and Effective Insurance Guarantee Schemes(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-14) World BankA well-developed efficient insurance sector plays an important role in any economy. This role is supported by effective regulation and supervision with the aim of having a sound insurance sector that is growing, offering adequate covers, contributing to employment and investment, ensuring reduced exposure to poverty, and increasing shared prosperity. These objectives go beyond merely protecting the interests of policyholders. They recognize that the insurance sector plays a much larger role in the economy, even for those who are not policyholders or beneficiaries. Failure of insurers can undermine these objectives. Failure events might best be defined broadly and from a consumer perspective rather than through a literal analysis of a legal definition. It is clear that such events could have an adverse impact on both the policyholders and beneficiaries directly involved as well as the broader market. As a result, the insurance sector maintains a high level of resilient providers with a well-developed system catering to orderly resolution. It is also noted that politics can add to the challenges of managing an insurer failure. Media and local politics can lead to significant pressure either regionally or nationally. While the normal activity of dealing with a crisis event is drawing heavily on the resources of the supervisory authorities, this additional layer of activity is usually not trivial. In some situations, political engagement is needed to secure the necessary mechanisms for resolution. Given the variety of actual situations that arise, it is often the case that politicians need to be engaged in the solution. PublicationThe Future of Work: Implications for Equity and Growth in Europe(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Dalvit, Nicolò; De Hoyos, Rafael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Pantelaiou, Ioanna; Torre, IvánThis report aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between technology, economic growth, and equity by analyzing the impact of technological progress on firm-level productivity, market concentration, and labor market outcomes of workers with different education levels. The analysis focuses on the effects that technology can have in European Union (EU) member states, addressing two main distributional challenges: (i) an increase in market concentration, with a few large and innovative firms hoarding the benefits of technological progress, and (ii) technological progress exacerbating income differences between highly educated and other workers. These two challenges, and the public policies aiming to address them, will shape the future relationship between technological progress, economic growth, and income distribution in Europe. PublicationPromoting Innovative Entrepreneurship in Viet Nam: An Ecosystem Diagnostic(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-05) World BankThis report provides a diagnostic of Viet Nam’s entrepreneurship ecosystem and details a set of targeted recommendations for improving conditions for innovative entrepreneurship in the country. The diagnostic consists of four components: 1.) An overview of the Vietnamese private sector, with a focus on market dynamism; 2.) A demand side analysis focused on the flow of ideas, skills, and technology that contribute to the pipeline of innovative startups; 3.) A supply-side assessment of public support and private risk finance throughout the firm lifecycle, and 4.) An analysis of the ecosystem framework conditions. The report finds that the overall quality and the level of public support for entrepreneurship is low; founders have challenges with key aspects of running a business, such as developing product-market fit, growth strategies, and team building; and risk capital markets are heavily dependent on foreign funds and investors and have gaps in early-stage finance. The report concludes with three policy recommendations for improving Viet Nam’s entrepreneurial performance: 1.) Reorient the national flagship Program 844 on "Supporting the National Innovation Initiative to 2025" toward building a pipeline of investment-ready, innovative startups; 2.) Address regulatory barriers related to risk capital investments; and 3.) Increase the contribution of the public research sector to the innovative startup agenda. PublicationThe Missing Element of Firm Digitalization - Lessons for the EU Member States: Best Practices for Enhancing MSMEs Digitalization and Managerial Capacity Building(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-04) World BankAs increasing the pace of productivity growth continues to be a strong challenge in Europe despite the continuous global technology developments, promoting the adoption and usage of digital technology has become more important than ever, particularly among micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs). This guide aims to provide policymakers and practitioners with a comprehensive resource that outlines effective strategies for addressing gaps in complementary capabilities to the digitalization of MSMEs that can help enhance their productivity and resilience. PublicationMiddle Trade and Transport Corridor: Policies and Investments to Triple Freight Volumes and Halve Travel Time by 2030(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-26) World BankThe Middle Corridor (MC) is a multimodal transport corridor connecting China to Europe, which has been receiving elevated attention following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The MC links China, and Kazakhstan by rail through Dostyk or Khorgos/Altynkol, crosses Kazakhstan by rail to the Aktau Port, crosses the Caspian Sea to the Port of Baku/Alyat, and Azerbaijan and Georgia by rail to then either continue by rail to Europe through Türkiye or crossing the Black Sea. Due to inefficiencies and infrastructure gaps in Türkiye, the Black Sea route is currently preferred by operators. This report focuses on the route traversing Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; a subsequent study will focus on Türkiye. The MC, with its numerous border crossings, transshipments between modes and operational inefficiencies, takes three times longer than the Northern route (via Russia) and is comparable in duration to the maritime route. As a result, it has consequently held a lower priority for long-distance trade. PublicationDigital Conglomerates in East Asia: Navigating Competition Policy Challenges(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-21) World BankConglomeration has traditionally been prevalent in Asia, a trend that is currently exacerbated by the characteristics of digital markets. While conglomerates offer important benefits, from economies of scale and diversification to the development of new products, they can also have a negative impact on market dynamics. This report examines conglomeration trends in five Asian countries, Malaysia, Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam, to better understand whether offline conglomerates are expanding into digital markets vis a vis the expansion of purely digital conglomerates into adjacent and non-adjacent markets. The report focuses on one of the main expansion strategies: conglomerate mergers and acquisitions. To this end, it explores the prevalence of conglomerate mergers, both globally and within the East Asia region, the type of competition scrutiny they are submitted to, and potential aspects to strengthen their review to foster more effective competition policies. The report concludes with a set of key policy recommendations that address the identified risks. PublicationThe Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-13) World Bank GroupIn 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil’s development over the next decades. “The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability” takes a long-term perspective on Brazil’s development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms.