Other ESW Reports

286 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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  • Publication
    The Economic Opportunity for Financial Inclusion of Forcibly Displaced People (FDP) by the Financial Sector in Brazil
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-21) International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    This study was commissioned by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to identify opportunities that foster the financial inclusion of the community of Forcibly Displaced People (FDP) in Brazil. The study provides concrete business opportunities for the provision of sustainable financial services to refugees and migrants in the country. It also provides recommendations for the financial sector and other stakeholders who aim to serve the FDP community locally. For the study, the term FDP includes both refugees and migrants, from different nationalities, living in Brazil for more than six months. The following analysis and insights are based on a comprehensive market assessment on the current demand and supply of financial and non-financial services for FDP in Brazil. An online survey resulted from 1,070 respondents captured data on the socioeconomic profiles of the FDP population in Brazil, as well as their needs for financial and non-financial services. On the demand side, 20 individual in-depth interviews and 8 focus groups with refugees and migrants mainly from Venezuela, Bolivia, and Haiti were conducted. On the supply side, desk research was conducted, and interviews were held with representatives from 16 Brazilian Financial Service Providers (FSPs), including: large private banks, mid-sized private financial institutions, fintech and digital banks, Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), public financial institutions, and state development agencies. Additional interviews were conducted with international and local organizations that support the FDP population in Brazil. This study provides the necessary inputs to elaborate or improve institutional strategies that recognize the economic opportunity related to the financial inclusion of the FDP community in Brazil. Realistic business cases illustrate the additional market potential and strategic opportunities for FSPs.
  • Publication
    Desktop Review: Analysis of The Pacific Islands Forum Members included in the EU List of Non-Cooperative Jurisdictions
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank
    The objective of this desktop study is to enhance the overall implementation of the international standards in the region and gain a better understanding of their technical assistance needs. This independent assessment concerning the technical challenges affecting the PIF members in the EU list has been requested by the PIF and completed by the World Bank Group (WBG). The desktop review has been prepared with public sources cited throughout the report. An interview with the Secretariat of the European Commission’s Directorate General for Taxation and Customs was also conducted. Section 2 of this note contains the evaluation of Fiji, Palau, Samoa, and Vanuatu; countries listed in the February 2024 update, against the EU tax good governance criteria. This section clearly identifies the situation of each country in respect of the criteria considered not met by the EU Council. The assessment was conducted exclusively using publicly available sources. Section 3 contains the main actions that each country must undertake to strengthen its international tax system, in accordance with the challenges identified in section. Technical assistance from international organizations can facilitate the completion of these actions. The WBG has strong expertise in the implementation of the tax transparency standards and the BEPS minimum standards within the Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment (MTI) Global Practice. In addition, WBG works closely with other international organizations that help in these topics. Lastly, section 4 outlines the potential consequences faced by PIF countries for being in the EU list. However, this impact does not include quantification of FDI losses, as it is out of scope of this desktop review.
  • Publication
    Global Labor Database User Manual: A Guide to Understanding, Using, and Interacting with the Global Labor Database
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-29) World Bank
    The Global Labor Database (GLD) is part of the World Bank initiatives to harmonize labor force surveys and household surveys with a relevant labor module. Its mission is to create an open and transparent harmonization with sufficient background information to allow data analysts to use, alter, and expand the harmonization. In this sense, background information goes beyond code, questionnaires, and reports, and includes documenting survey details learned during harmonization which are not recorded elsewhere. An example of this documenting changes to the currency or the administrative divisions. The GLD aims to be an open-source database, meaning that as much information should be accessible to as many people as possible. It also strives to be transparent, making all steps that create the harmonization traceable, from raw data acquisition to harmonized variable coding. Hence, all steps of the harmonization process are documented and made available, including the survey documentation, code and notes that allow users to fully comprehend the survey design and the choices made in the harmonization. The availability of the codes and documentation enables users to customize and add variables not in the GLD harmonization. Most harmonization efforts provide users with a take it or leave it option, but the GLD's open and transparent approach allows users to trace and deviate from the standard harmonization at any point, giving them a head start regardless of where they wish to jump in. Finally, the GLD follows up and expands on the previous initiative to harmonized household surveys, the International Income Distribution Database (I2D2). The I2D2 was superseded by the Global Monitoring Database (GMD), which however focused on household budget surveys and did not harmonize labor force surveys. The GLD was created to remedy this gap in the survey type coverage and complement it, with a stronger focus on labor market information through an expanded dictionary and more rigorous validation of labor indicators.
  • Publication
    The Evolution, Practice and Impact of Participatory Budgeting in Kenya: The Kenya Accountable Devolution Program
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-15) World Bank
    Citizen engagement is critical to achieving an effective devolution process. The success of devolution in delivering good quality services in Kenya is inextricably linked to the extent to which counties provide their citizens with adequate information on budgets and service delivery performance, empower them to participate and contribute to decision-making, and are held accountable. For a decade, counties in Kenya have been translating into action the legal principles on transparency, accountability, and public participation as enshrined in the Constitution of Kenya 2010. Although this has not been an easy task, counties have made notable progress, establishing systems, structures, processes, and practices for meaningful citizen engagement. One of the innovative practices adopted is participatory budgeting. With training and technical assistance from the World Bank through the Kenya Accountable Devolution Program (KADP), several counties have been implementing participatory budgeting since 2015 as an approach to achieving more inclusive and effective government.
  • Publication
    Climate Adaptation in Uzbekistan: Landscape Restoration Opportunities
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-07) World Bank
    Land use plays a pivotal role in Uzbekistan’s development, and embracing sustainable agriculture offers a promising pathway to achieving middle-income status. This report aims to identify hotspots of land degradation and declining productivity along with areas of adaptation opportunity where landscape restoration can offset these trends under changing climate conditions. It also analyzes the costs of land degradation (cost of inaction) compared to investing in adaptation technologies (cost of action). The report recommends technological, institutional, and policy options to reduce natural capital degradation in the agriculture, forest, and water sectors.
  • Publication
    Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in the MENA Region: Synthesis and Cross-cutting Findings of SOE Governance Reviews of Six Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-22) World Bank
    This report is part of a World Bank review of state-owned enterprise (SOE) governance practices in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The focus on governance is motivated by research pointing to good governance as an important precondition for successful and sustainable SOE reform. This report summarizes findings of six SOE governance reviews of Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, and Tunisia, while also drawing on other regional studies. The six country reports, as well as this cross-cutting report, concentrate on the core dimensions of corporate governance of SOEs as identified in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Corporate Governance of SOEs, and the World Bank’s Integrated SOE Framework (iSOEF). These include: (i) the legal and regulatory framework for corporate governance; (ii) state ownership arrangements; (iii) performance management frameworks; (iv) Board structures and functioning; (v) financial reporting, accountability, control, and transparency; (vi) procurement policies and practices; and (vii) climate change reporting practices. The report also provides an overview of the SOE landscape in terms of the size, composition, employment, subsidies, and financial risks of the SOE sectors.
  • Publication
    Local Governments Climate Finance Instruments - Global Experiences and Prospects in Developing Countries
    (World Bank and UNCDF, 2024-04-15) World Bank; United Nations Capital Development Fund
    Local governments—especially cities and municipalities—in developing countries will be at the forefront of confronting and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and they need substantial financing to address this challenge. However, they often lack the fiscal resources for such investments. To address this financing gap, they will need to utilize a variety of financing sources and instruments. This joint publication of the World Bank and the UN Capital Development Fund aims to help cities and local governments better understand the various climate finance instruments and sources available to them, including intergovernmental fiscal transfers, own-source revenues, municipal borrowing (loans and bonds), public-private partnerships and credit-enhancement instruments such as guarantees. It provides information on each of these instruments - organized in a conceptual framework – and highlights international experience and 18 case studies on their use from around the world. The report also recommends various actions that cities, local and national governments and development partners can take to increase access to these instruments to help meet climate investment needs in cities.
  • Publication
    Digital Conglomerates in East Asia: Navigating Competition Policy Challenges
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-02) World Bank
    Competition increases productivity boosting innovation and economic growth. Competition fosters cost reductions, innovation and promotes productivity growth. This paper reviews global and regional trends on conglomeration in digital markets, especially through mergers and acquisitions. In recent years, the landscape of business consolidation has undergone a transformative shift, driven by the convergence of digital innovation and traditional commerce. This paper delves into the intriguing trends surrounding conglomeration in both digital and brick-and-mortar spheres, exploring their implications on a regional and global scale. With diverse models intertwining digital and traditional conglomerates, the strategies employed for consolidation have showcased remarkable diversity. However, at the forefront emerges the prominent strategy of conglomerate mergers, which amalgamate distinct business dimensions under a single corporate umbrella. Thus, this study investigates the readiness of competition authorities and sector-specific regulators to effectively address the intricate challenges posed by such mergers. In this context, policy reforms emerge as a focal point, aimed at bolstering regulatory frameworks to foster fair competition, innovation, and consumer protection in an era of rapid conglomerate digitalization.
  • Publication
    Diversification through the Application of the Co-evolutionary Framework: Korea and Viet Nam
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-28) World Bank
    This research examines the diversification process by conceptualizing a co-evolutionary framework linking production and technology. The study applies the framework to retrospectively explain Korea’s successful diversification path and to Viet Nam to identify how the country could further diversify into complex and value-added products. The authors apply relatedness analysis leveraging patent and trade data and present four different types of diversification patterns, namely unrelated diversification, production-based diversification, technology-based diversification, and complex diversification. Developed countries including Korea shifted toward technology-based or complex diversification strategies as their economies developed. Using a simulated scenario approach, the report outlines potential future trajectories wherein Viet Nam attains technological capabilities. The result shows that Viet Nam can diversify into 233 products if it accumulates capabilities in the 12 identified technologies. The report concludes with policy lessons that could inform policy makers in Viet Nam as well as other developing economies. Namely, that the country would need to invest more intensively in technology and capabilities upgrading to diversify into new complex products and evolve its diversification strategy alongside its economic growth and capability building process.
  • Publication
    Managing Flood Risks: Leveraging Finance for Business Resilience in Malaysia
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-19) World Bank; Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)
    Building resilience to natural disasters is imperative for sustainable private sector development and growth in Malaysia. Floods have been Malaysia’s most frequent natural disaster, accounting for 85 percent of all natural disasters since 2000. This report looks holistically at the challenges of adaptation to climate change for businesses, exploring the complementarity among the public sector, the financial sector, and the private sector efforts in managing flood risks. It does so by using a range of complementary analyses that bring together the private sector perspective drawn from a firm-level survey, the financial sector perspective based on a survey of financial institutions (both banks and insurers and takaful operators), along with macro-modelling estimates of the aggregate impacts of future floods. The report concludes with a roadmap for policy action to strengthen private sector resilience and enhance the management of flood risks for businesses, zooming in on policies for the financial sector.