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Publication(Washington, DC, 2022-05) World BankCroatia’s high degree of municipal fragmentation has been consistently recognized as a weakness and one of the main problems of its intergovernmental fiscal system. The report argues that the problem of fragmentation is in essence a problem of capacity. The objective of this report is to review international experiences and lessons in the promotion of local government mergers and municipal associations to inform efforts to advance institutional reform in Croatia and address the problem of low local government capacity. The report is organized into six sections. The first section is introduction, the second section reviews the fragmented territorial administrative structure in Croatia, and the third is devoted to unpacking the concept of local government units (LGU) capacity. The fourth section focuses on relevant international experience related to municipal fragmentation and capacity deficiencies, and the fifth examines incentive measures for Intermunicipal Cooperation (IMC) and the creation of associations or commonwealths. The sixth section lays out policy options and recommendations for Croatia, prioritized along a sequence for implementation.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03) World BankJordan aspires to become a regional digital leader and has identified digital economy as a high priority for the country’s social and economic development. More recently, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has created an urgency for Jordan to adapt to the post-pandemic world driven by digital infrastructure and services. Against this background, this case study provides an assessment of the data governance practices in Jordan as well as a set of high-level policy recommendations to strengthen data governance in support of a vibrant, safe, and inclusive digital economy. Data governance is a necessary process of managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of data in public and private systems. Solid data governance ecosystem, supported by capacity building for institutions and inclusive communications and dissemination campaigns, can foster trust in data use in a country and region with a fragile social contract. The diagnostic toolkit used in this report interrogates three pillars: enablers; safeguards; and value creation.