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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-10-26) World BankThe impacts of climate change will be unevenly felt within and across countries partly due to social and economic inequalities. Persons with disabilities represent 16 percent of the global population and face widespread forms of social and economic marginalization yet have received little attention in prior studies of climate change and social inequality. The mortality rate of persons with disabilities in natural disasters is “up to four times higher than people without disabilities” (Stein and Stein 2021). How do the fast-moving shocks, flooding, drought, heatwaves and slower-moving social and economic effects of climate change impact persons with disabilities How can climate change adaptation efforts be disability inclusive This study examines these questions through original fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted in Uzbekistan. In November 2022, the authors interviewed persons with disabilities in three regions of the country. The resulting qualitative data afford key insights into how climate change and disability status interact to generate distinct vulnerabilities. Within the nascent field of climate change and disability studies, this report represents one of the first fieldwork-based accounts of how climate change presents heightened risks to persons with disabilities in a developing country context.
Watershed Management and Landscape Restoration Opportunities Assessment for Sioni Reservoir Watershed System in Georgia(Washington, DC, 2022-10) World BankThis assessment report presents the results of a study focused on the Sioni Reservoir watershed, which is subject to seasonal sediment loads affecting the sustainability of water for hydropower generation and irrigation. The study reveals the major causes of landscape degradation within target watershed and sediment loads to the Sioni Reservoir affecting the suitability of water for irrigation and the lifetime of the dam. The study also identifies the main interventions for landscape restoration and provides a brief analysis of the institutional and policy gaps and recommendations that are applicable for other watersheds in the region as well.
Supporting the Implementation of Residential Heating Measures in Bulgaria’s National Air Quality Improvement Program and National Air Pollution Control Program(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) World BankThese programs have been prepared by the Government of Bulgaria (GoB) with technical support by the World Bank. In the course of the work it became clear that national and local institutions would face multi- faceted challenges in implementing the NAQIP and NAPCP, relating mainly to overcoming financial, administrative, and technical difficulties. The swift evolution of EU policy frameworks for countering climate change, improving energy security, reducing energy poverty, as well as the need to improve health and wellbeing in Bulgaria, add to those challenges though they may be regarded instead as presenting significant economic opportunities. The NAQIP proposes measures for phasing out the use of thermally inefficient, polluting old stoves and boilers that burn solid fuels, replacing them with cleaner, more efficient heating arrangements. It is expected that the measures will reduce PM10 emissions from the residential heating sector by about 78 percent. Other measures target the road transport sector though its contribution to local emissions is minor in comparison. The NAPCP focuses on meeting air pollutant emission targets for 2030 as required in the Revised NECD. NAQIP measures to reduce PM10 emissions from the residential heating sector are incorporated in full in the NAPCP. Other sectors where policies and measures to reduce emissions were considered have included large combustion plants in the power generation and industrial sectors, road transport, agriculture, and industrial processes. The preparation of these two programs was complemented by capacity strengthening, including the development of tools to help municipalities undertake essential planning and project preparation. All guidance documentation to accompany the tools were collated to form a Resource Toolkit. Communication and coordination issues were also tackled in the engagement.