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Using Behavioral Science in Communication Outreach to Increase Female Participation in Natural Resource Management in Mexico(Washington, DC, 2022-02-06) World BankWhile a range of public programs in Mexico exist to incentivize communities to conserve and manage forest natural resources, a gender gap persists in the use of these initiatives. The experiment discussed in this report was commissioned by the climate investment funds’ (CIF) evaluation and learning (E and L) initiative to understand how to improve outreach to and encourage women to engage in productive natural resource management (NRM) programs. Following an earlier behavioral diagnostic study, the World Bank and local partners conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of behaviorally informed additional outreach and engagement measures for NRM programs in Mexico. This report summarizes the findings of a field experiment commissioned by the CIF E and L initiative, with additional financing from the forest carbon partnership facility (FCPF). The experiment was designed to help identify promising strategies to improve outreach to women in order to encourage them to engage in productive natural resource management programs. This report presents the methodology used for the intervention and experimental design. It provides an analysis of the results at the locality and individual level. Finally, it provides conclusions and policy recommendations.
Accelerating Paraguay’s International Integration through Enhanced Trade, Investment and Competition Policies(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02) World BankThis report seeks to inform the policy dialogue on how to accelerate Paraguay’s international economic integration and in turn its medium- and long-term growth prospects. It benchmarks Paraguay’s global integration; analyzes trade, investment and competition policies and the quality of related institutions; and provides recommendations for strengthening them and accelerating the country’s global connection. Chapter 2 benchmarks Paraguay’s trade outcomes along several dimensions, including export diversification, quality upgrading and export survival, and Chapter 3 follows with an analysis of how trade policies and the quality of the institutional framework are affecting trade performance and identifies opportunities for improvements. It also estimates the impact of the MERCOSUR-European Union (EU) Free Trade Agreement on Paraguay. Chapter 4 focuses on FDI patterns and the strengths and shortcomings of the supporting FDI policy framework to help integrate in regional and global value chains. Chapter 5 examines competition challenges in Paraguay’s markets that could be affecting trade and FDI attraction and provides recommendations for strengthening competition policies and institutions. The preparation of this report has benefitted from the analysis of multiple data sources as well as extensive consultations with stakeholders from the private and public sectors.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2021-12) World BankOver the past twenty years, fiscal policy has become one of the three pillars of macroeconomic stability for Colombia, the other two being the flexible exchange rate and inflation targeting. The credibility and sustainability of fiscal policy is the result of strong institutions (in particular, the fiscal rule and the medium-term fiscal and expenditure framework) and a prudent management of public finances. After the 1999 crisis, Colombia managed to reduce the general government deficit and built buffers, which allowed it to respond to the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. Colombia successfully withdrew the 2008–09 deficit expansion and ran one of the highest fiscal balances in Latin America, until the COVID-19 crisis hit. The COVID-19 crisis has created a large shock to the economy and to public finances .Growth contracted to a minimum not seen in over 35 years. The economic contraction and the response needed to address the health emergency and to sustain activity pushed the central government’s deficit and the debt to their highest levels in decade, 7.8 and 64 percent of GDP respectively. Gains in poverty reduction reached over the past 10 years were wiped off.