Other ESW Reports

276 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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  • Publication
    Diversification through the Application of the Co-evolutionary Framework: Korea and Viet Nam
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-28) World Bank
    This research examines the diversification process by conceptualizing a co-evolutionary framework linking production and technology. The study applies the framework to retrospectively explain Korea’s successful diversification path and to Viet Nam to identify how the country could further diversify into complex and value-added products. The authors apply relatedness analysis leveraging patent and trade data and present four different types of diversification patterns, namely unrelated diversification, production-based diversification, technology-based diversification, and complex diversification. Developed countries including Korea shifted toward technology-based or complex diversification strategies as their economies developed. Using a simulated scenario approach, the report outlines potential future trajectories wherein Viet Nam attains technological capabilities. The result shows that Viet Nam can diversify into 233 products if it accumulates capabilities in the 12 identified technologies. The report concludes with policy lessons that could inform policy makers in Viet Nam as well as other developing economies. Namely, that the country would need to invest more intensively in technology and capabilities upgrading to diversify into new complex products and evolve its diversification strategy alongside its economic growth and capability building process.
  • Publication
    Managing Flood Risks: Leveraging Finance for Business Resilience in Malaysia
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-19) World Bank; Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)
    Building resilience to natural disasters is imperative for sustainable private sector development and growth in Malaysia. Floods have been Malaysia’s most frequent natural disaster, accounting for 85 percent of all natural disasters since 2000. This report looks holistically at the challenges of adaptation to climate change for businesses, exploring the complementarity among the public sector, the financial sector, and the private sector efforts in managing flood risks. It does so by using a range of complementary analyses that bring together the private sector perspective drawn from a firm-level survey, the financial sector perspective based on a survey of financial institutions (both banks and insurers and takaful operators), along with macro-modelling estimates of the aggregate impacts of future floods. The report concludes with a roadmap for policy action to strengthen private sector resilience and enhance the management of flood risks for businesses, zooming in on policies for the financial sector.
  • Publication
    Resilience Rating System: A Methodology for Building and Tracking Resilience to Climate Change - Synthesizing Key Lessons from IDA19 Piloting
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-19) World Bank
    In response to the growing recognition that measuring inputs, such as climate finance, is not enough to capture the impacts of investments, the World Bank Group developed the Resilience Rating System (RRS). Developed over a two-year,multi-sectoral consultative process through close collaboration with internal and external actors, the RRS methodology aims to guide investment decisions and improve climate resilience in project design and outcomes. The methodology report is publicly available. The RRS evaluates and rates investment projects from C to A+, based on their resilience attributes in two complementary dimensions. The resilience of rating considers a project’s design, reflecting the confidence that it will achieve its expected objectives and maximize development benefits in the face of climate and disaster risks.The resilience through rating considers a project’s outcomes and reflects its contribution to improving climate resilience in the broader community, sector and systems, and to driving transformational adaptation. Combining the two dimension ratings provides an overall project rating, from CC to A+A+.
  • Publication
    Timor-Leste and WTO Accession: Harnessing Momentum to Support Development Outcomes
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-27) Sauvé, Pierre; Lacey, Simon; Lakatos, Csilla
    World Trade Organization (WTO) accession is a challenging process typically commanding a heavy price in terms of resources and time expended while also calling for the expense of non-trivial political capital by an acceding country’s policymakers. Nevertheless, gaining membership of the world trade body represents a once in a generation opportunity for acceding countries to embark upon and sustain a set of deep structural reforms seldom possible in the absence of binding policy commitments. Timor-Leste is a young nation facing a set of unique challenges as it nears the completion of its WTO accession process. While WTO and subsequently Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) accession can help Timor-Leste address and overcome many of the above challenges, neither of these outcomes can - nor should be expected to - produce miracles by themselves. This report considers the case for Timor-Leste to bring its quest for WTO accession to a successful conclusion. It advances a set of arguments designed to help the country’s policymakers in their dialogue with domestic stakeholders and constituents of the benefits that the Timorese economy and its citizens stand to derive from placing the country’s trade ties to the world market on a stable and predictable global footing. This report is divided into three parts. Part 1 offers a brief overview of Timor-Leste’s recent trade performance and the overall macro-economic context within which the country’s quest for WTO accession takes place. Part 2 provides an overview of the WTO accession process and its legal and institutional implications for Timor-Leste. Part 3 of the report focuses on WTO accession and how it can be leveraged to achieve long-run economic growth. The report concludes with a call for Timor-Leste to maintain the strong existing momentum of its accession journey while also managing expectations of the short-term impacts of WTO accession.
  • Publication
    Partnering with the World Bank through Trust Funds and Umbrella 2.0 Programs: A Guide for Development Partners
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-14) World Bank
    This Guide provides a brief overview of World Bank Trust Funds—what they are, what they fund, and the operating environment in which they are managed. It also describes the Umbrella 2.0 Program, an approach to organizing and managing trust funds for greater development impact. In addition, it highlights and provides links to key policies underpinning implementation of activities carried out by the World Bank or by recipients of its funds—policies that apply equally to activities funded by trust fund contributions.
  • Publication
    Trading Towards Sustainability: The Role of Trade Policies in Indonesia’s Green Transformation
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) Montfaucon, Angella Faith; Lakatos, Csilla; Agnimaruto, Bayu; Silberring, Jana Mirjam
    Climate change - and efforts to mitigate and adapt to it - will affect global flows of trade and Indonesia’s ability to transition to a more environmentally sustainable economy on its path to become a high-income economy is, therefore, interlinked with trade policy. Environmental policy stringency (EPS) is increasing around the globe - a crucial challenge lies in harmonizing these with sustained economic growth, yet both goals can be reached. Although trade flows facilitate emissions, they are also a critical part of the solution, including through trade in environmental goods (EGs) and plastic substitutes - with important economic spillovers. This report provides a detailed analysis of the role of trade and trade policy on EGs and plastic substitutes in Indonesia’s green transition. Chapter one describes the need for, and urgency of, this transition, by looking at the carbon intensity of Indonesia’s trade, the impacts of environmental policies of Indonesia and key trading partners, and the roles of EGs. Chapter two examines where Indonesia stands on the level of trade in EGs and plastic substitutes and the competitiveness of EGs trade. Chapter three explores trade agreements and tariffs and simulates potential impacts of tariff reforms - including through multilateral actions. Chapter four examines what non-tariff measures (NTMs) apply on the products including inputs of firms exporting EGs and assesses which NTMs may be costly. Finally, chapter five concludes with policy recommendations.
  • Publication
    The Effects of Matching Grants on Technology Startups: The Case of Korea’s TIPS
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) World Bank
    This report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients’ performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea’s policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
  • Publication
    Establishing Efficient and Effective Insurance Guarantee Schemes
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-14) World Bank
    A well-developed efficient insurance sector plays an important role in any economy. This role is supported by effective regulation and supervision with the aim of having a sound insurance sector that is growing, offering adequate covers, contributing to employment and investment, ensuring reduced exposure to poverty, and increasing shared prosperity. These objectives go beyond merely protecting the interests of policyholders. They recognize that the insurance sector plays a much larger role in the economy, even for those who are not policyholders or beneficiaries. Failure of insurers can undermine these objectives. Failure events might best be defined broadly and from a consumer perspective rather than through a literal analysis of a legal definition. It is clear that such events could have an adverse impact on both the policyholders and beneficiaries directly involved as well as the broader market. As a result, the insurance sector maintains a high level of resilient providers with a well-developed system catering to orderly resolution. It is also noted that politics can add to the challenges of managing an insurer failure. Media and local politics can lead to significant pressure either regionally or nationally. While the normal activity of dealing with a crisis event is drawing heavily on the resources of the supervisory authorities, this additional layer of activity is usually not trivial. In some situations, political engagement is needed to secure the necessary mechanisms for resolution. Given the variety of actual situations that arise, it is often the case that politicians need to be engaged in the solution.
  • Publication
    The Future of Work: Implications for Equity and Growth in Europe
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Dalvit, Nicolò; De Hoyos, Rafael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Pantelaiou, Ioanna; Torre, Iván
    This report aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between technology, economic growth, and equity by analyzing the impact of technological progress on firm-level productivity, market concentration, and labor market outcomes of workers with different education levels. The analysis focuses on the effects that technology can have in European Union (EU) member states, addressing two main distributional challenges: (i) an increase in market concentration, with a few large and innovative firms hoarding the benefits of technological progress, and (ii) technological progress exacerbating income differences between highly educated and other workers. These two challenges, and the public policies aiming to address them, will shape the future relationship between technological progress, economic growth, and income distribution in Europe.
  • Publication
    Promoting Innovative Entrepreneurship in Viet Nam: An Ecosystem Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-05) World Bank
    This report provides a diagnostic of Viet Nam’s entrepreneurship ecosystem and details a set of targeted recommendations for improving conditions for innovative entrepreneurship in the country. The diagnostic consists of four components: 1.) An overview of the Vietnamese private sector, with a focus on market dynamism; 2.) A demand side analysis focused on the flow of ideas, skills, and technology that contribute to the pipeline of innovative startups; 3.) A supply-side assessment of public support and private risk finance throughout the firm lifecycle, and 4.) An analysis of the ecosystem framework conditions. The report finds that the overall quality and the level of public support for entrepreneurship is low; founders have challenges with key aspects of running a business, such as developing product-market fit, growth strategies, and team building; and risk capital markets are heavily dependent on foreign funds and investors and have gaps in early-stage finance. The report concludes with three policy recommendations for improving Viet Nam’s entrepreneurial performance: 1.) Reorient the national flagship Program 844 on "Supporting the National Innovation Initiative to 2025" toward building a pipeline of investment-ready, innovative startups; 2.) Address regulatory barriers related to risk capital investments; and 3.) Increase the contribution of the public research sector to the innovative startup agenda.