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Publication(Washington, DC, 2023-11-13) World BankOver the past decade, material efficiency and resource productivity have surfaced on the global policy agenda. The rise of the circular economy (CE) agenda reflects the objective of moving away from the current systems of production and consumption based on the ‘take-make-use-waste’ linear economic model toward economies centered on minimizing the use of virgin materials without adversely affecting welfare. The focus is on a life-cycle approach to resource management, which starts with reducing raw material demand by looping resources back into consumption and production systems through innovations in material design, production, and reutilization processes. In addition to reducing pollution and other harmful emissions, the CE can be a driver of private sector growth and jobs and can increase the strategic autonomy of countries by reducing dependence on raw material imports. The objective of this rapid analysis is to identify the CE-related priority areas, sectors in Bulgaria and potential areas of focus for follow-up interventions. The study also aims to highlight concrete barriers that prevent the national and local governments from undertaking these interventions, as well as enabling factors and approaches to overcome them.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2021-10-31) World BankTransitioning to a more knowledge- and technology-based economy will be critical if Bulgaria is to achieve convergence with its European peers in terms of economic productivity and living standards. The coming year presents an important opportunity for Bulgaria to improve its support for science, technology, and innovation (STI). This report assesses the efficiency of selected Bulgarian STI support programs, tracks progress on outcomes, and reports on beneficiaries’ perceptions of program quality. This report is the third and final major component of the World Bank’s Bulgaria public expenditure review for STI (PER STI) project. This efficiency analysis addresses an identified gap in Bulgaria’s STI system: the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) of STI support programs. This report aims to address those gaps by identifying benchmarks for assessing the results of STI support programs in Bulgaria and providing a methodology and tools for carrying out such evaluations in the future. The report is structured in nine sections. Section one presents the methodology, section two provides a comparison of key results across the six programs included in the analysis, sections three through eight provide program-specific analysis and findings, and section nine provides recommendations.