Other ESW Reports

267 items available

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This includes miscellaneous ESW types and pre-2003 ESW type reports that are subsequently completed and released.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    The Future of Work: Implications for Equity and Growth in Europe
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Dalvit, Nicolò; De Hoyos, Rafael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Pantelaiou, Ioanna; Torre, Iván
    This report aims to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between technology, economic growth, and equity by analyzing the impact of technological progress on firm-level productivity, market concentration, and labor market outcomes of workers with different education levels. The analysis focuses on the effects that technology can have in European Union (EU) member states, addressing two main distributional challenges: (i) an increase in market concentration, with a few large and innovative firms hoarding the benefits of technological progress, and (ii) technological progress exacerbating income differences between highly educated and other workers. These two challenges, and the public policies aiming to address them, will shape the future relationship between technological progress, economic growth, and income distribution in Europe.
  • Publication
    Working Without Borders: The Promise and Peril of Online Gig Work
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-07-24) Datta, Namita; Rong, Chen; Singh, Sunamika; Stinshoff, Clara; Iacob, Nadina; Nigatu, Natnael Simachew; Nxumalo, Mpumelelo; Klimaviciute, Luka
    Online gig work poses both opportunities and challenges for governments and workers. On the upside, it offers prospects for income generation, especially in developing countries, where most people work in low-productivity, low-quality, often informal jobs. The virtual and often temporary nature of gig work also provides flexibility for often neglected groups such as women, youth, migrants, and people with disabilities. These jobs could be a stepping-stone to bet¬ter-quality jobs for low-skilled workers by helping them learn critical digital skills and close the digital divide. But most gig jobs offer little to no protection for workers, with uncertain income streams and no clear career pathways. Depending on local labor regulations, many gig workers are not protected against unfair practices, abuse or injuries while working. Gig work also raises challenges for managing data security and privacy. The report examines how countries can navigate the promise and perils of online gig work. It reveals that the online gig workforce is much larger than previously assumed with an estimated 154 million to 435 million Online gig workers around the globe. For the first time ever, the report mapped and tracked regional platforms and gig workers who work in languages other than English. Key messages are: • Online gig work is expanding, accounting for up to 12% of the global labor force and is a growing source of income for millions. • Demand for online gig workers is rising faster in developing countries than in industrialized countries. • Local gig platforms play a vital role in the local labor market, but they face challenges in establishing a viable business model, and opportunities for long-term growth. • Online gig work can support inclusion by providing work opportunities for youth, women, and low-skilled workers. • Gig workers, like most other informal sector workers in developing countries, are often outside the purview of labor regulations. • The gig economy can offer opportunities locally to build digital skills, increase income-earning opportunities, and facilitate social protection coverage of informal workers.
  • Publication
    GovTech Maturity Index, 2022 Update: Trends in Public Sector Digital Transformation
    (Washington, DC, 2022-12) World Bank
    The 2021 GovTech Maturity Index (GTMI) report and underlying dataset provide opportunities to replicate the study, identify gaps in digital transformation by comparing the differences among economies and groups of economies, and track changes over time in a transparent way. The dataset will be updated every two years to reflect developments in the GovTech domain. This 2022 GTMI update report and the accompanying dataset and new data dashboard present the progress within the last two years, highlight some of the good practices, and identify existing gaps for possible improvements in countries at the technology frontier. As with the 2020 edition, economies are grouped, not ranked, to illustrate the state of GovTech focus areas globally. This overview report presents a summary of the approach, how the 2022 GTMI dataset update is different, improvements in the GTMI dataset contents and visualization tools and GTMI group calculations, and initial findings and key messages.
  • Publication
    Digitalizing SMEs to Boost Competitiveness
    (Washington, DC, 2022-10) World Bank
    While Malaysia’s digital economy had already been growing rapidly over the past decade, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has further accelerated this trend. In particular, increased access to digital platforms has enabled businesses of all sizes to mitigate the crisis’ adverse impacts. At the same time, the depth and breadth of small and medium enterprise (SME) digitalization has remained limited, suggesting a growing risk of digital divide in the country. This report analyzes opportunities and challenges for Malaysian SMEs to better leverage digital tools and platforms to increase their productivity and competitiveness. It is structured around three complementary analytical pillars: (i) a digital business landscape diagnostic presenting the extent of digitalization and use of digital platforms among SMEs in traditional sectors, and the constraints that SMEs still face to digitalize; (ii) an institutional and policy mapping reviewing the government of Malaysia’s efforts to foster SME digitalization; and (iii) a digital market regulations assessment evaluating the adequacy of Malaysia’s digital regulatory environment, to identify shortcomings that may undermine SMEs’ capacity to access and benefit from the use of digital platforms. The analysis has been undertaken with a view to inform the implementation of the Malaysia Digital Blueprint (MyDIGITAL).
  • Publication
    Driving Revolutionary Ideas into Practice: Infrastructure for Climate Change, Poverty Reduction 2.0, Human Development on Mobile Government, Disrupted
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    In the business of making policies, decisions are based on experience and guided by political concerns. However, in the business of delivering policies, the machinery of government is often taxed by delays and inefficiencies, and constrained by insufficient resources, management tools, and just-in-time information. The result is that governments operate well below the efficiency frontier. For most of our history, research has been disconnected from policy and has moved slowly to build knowledge relevant to designing policies. The authors introduce some of the principles that govern this young institution in the chapters that follow, each designed to exemplify the value of doing better research for doing better development. In these chapters, they present four overarching ideas that they have worked into development practice. Overall, Development Impact Evaluation (DIME’s) approach is to inform the path of development through a capacities-based and iterative process of evidence-informed adaptive policy change. To do so, DIME has developed and implemented a model of co-production with agencies on the ground that transfers capacity and know-how to partners, enables them to make mid-course corrections and motivates the scale-up of more successful policy instruments to achieve policy outcomes and optimize development impact. Finally, DIME invests in public goods to improve the quality and reproducibility of development research around the world.
  • Publication
    Sectoral Approach to the Drivers of Productivity Growth in Poland: A Firm-Level Perspective on Technology Adoption and Firm Capabilities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    The report presents the main structural characteristics of the sectors included in the Technology Adoption Survey (TAS) implemented in Poland and provides sectoral TAS results for general and sector-specific business functions, comparing Poland to a peer country, Korea. Nine sectors analyzed within TAS include agriculture, food processing, wearing apparel, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, basic metals, wholesale and retail trade, financial services, and land transport. These form a selection of the most important economic industries in agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The same sectors were chosen in all countries where TAS was implemented because of their important contributions to the national economies as well as their diversity, which allowed us to identify the different natures of their technological needs and the barriers to technology adoption. Sectors in Poland differ in technology sophistication in both general business and sector-specific functions but, to a large extent, those differences are driven by the sectors’ structural differences, such as the number of large firms, the share of exporters, and the number foreign-owned enterprises. Firms in different sectors face different economic conditions and are exposed to a different balance of regulatory, environmental, and geopolitical risks and challenges. Understanding those sectoral differences, especially as they affect the use of sector-specific technologies, is of utmost importance, because productivity improvements historically have been driven primarily by capital-intensive investment, which often involves sector-specific technologies. In the context of sector-specific technologies, it is worth noting that the level of sophistication differs between sectors. Comparing technology trends across sectors is beyond the scope of this report, however; rather, here we closely follow the methodology described in Bridging the Technological Divide: Technology Adoption by Firms in Developing Countries.
  • Publication
    Preliminary Findings Report on Gender-Inclusive Approaches in Private Participation in Infrastructure
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank Group
    The report is a unique investigation into how private investors perceive gender inequality and its importance for their investments. It examines perceptions of private investors and lenders related to gender equality and inclusion of women and girls in infrastructure services and facilities in emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). As disclosure of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) information and sustainability reporting becomes more common in the private sector, understanding why and how gender inequalities matter within the sphere of social sustainability and inclusion is becoming increasingly important. The analysis below is based on original semi-structured interviews conducted with investors and lenders in the private sector that routinely invest in or finance infrastructure projects in EMDEs. It aims to understand: (i) how the investor community perceives the intersection between infrastructure and social sustainability and inclusion, particularly with respect to the inclusion of women and girls; (ii) what social issues investors and lenders feel are important; (iii) what actions they take in including women and girls in infrastructure projects and the challenges they face in doing so.
  • Publication
    Georgia Beyond Arrivals: Emerging Opportunities for Georgian Firms in Tourism Value Chains
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-27) World Bank Group
    Georgia’s current tourism offering is oriented toward low-spending neighboring markets and,although there is growth in high-spend global markets, the share is still very small. The majority of international visitor trips are from Georgia’s neighboring countries—Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey. This strong regional footprint is partly attributable to Georgia’s reputation during Soviet times as a recreational destination. Proximity, low prices, familiarity and language have contributed to this strong position. However, of Georgia’s top 15 source markets, tourists from Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey have the lowest average total trip expenditure and make the shortest trips. Although Georgia has seen very strong growth from China and India, arrivals to Georgia from the top global tourism source markets1 in 2018 represented only 7.3 percent of arrivals to the country. Georgia’s government is targeting high-growth, high-spend source markets. In 2015, the Government of Georgia (GoG) launched “Georgia Tourism 2025”; a 10-year vision and strategic plan for increasing the value and importance of tourism for the benefit of the country’s economy and ultimately its citizens. The plan—developed with support from the World Bank Group—included infrastructure development, country promotion, service quality improvement and tourism product diversification. Building on this plan, in 2018, GoG developed a marketing, branding and promotional strategy to communicate Georgia’s brand positioning, visual and verbal identity guidelines, and promotional objectives and target high growth, high-spend source markets. As Georgia’s source markets evolve, new GVC structures necessary to serve those markets will alsoemerge. GoG has identified 26 key source markets based on accessibility, economic factors, culturalrelations, and other factors such as the size of diaspora, historical ties and language barriers. A shift towards these new markets will also correspond to changes in consumer behavioral trends and tastes. This, coupled with global industry trends will see new value chain structures emerge, emphasizing activities with differing competitive forces, and presenting differing opportunities to create and retain value. Georgian firms may need support to respond to changes in emerging tourism GVCs and compete for higher-value-added activities. The report asks and answers two questions: i) How are emerging trends changing the structure of Tourism GVCs and how can Georgian firms benefit from these changes? ii) What policy reforms, capital investment or skills development is needed to increase Georgia’s value chain competitiveness in each of these key tourism offerings?
  • Publication
    Facilitating Trade and Logistics for E-Commerce: Building Blocks, Challenges, and Ways Forward
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) Huria, Ankur
    The objective of this note is to identify the key issues in trade facilitation and logistics that affect the e-commerce landscape, with a focus on cross border (trade facilitation) domestic delivery (logistics); highlight key challenges and opportunities, particularly for developing countries and small and medium enterprises (SMEs); and provide a roadmap for potential areas of World Bank (WB) support in that landscape. This work has broadly covered areas such as customs and border management; information and communications technology for trade; logistics services, including competition issues; and trade-related infrastructure (ports, inland ports, airports, and so on). This note identifies the various issues and challenges relating to e-commerce from a facilitation and logistics point of view and identifies potential solutions, particularly those in which the WBG can play a role in helping developing countries. The note draws from a wide array of developments and literature and from work done by the WBG more generally in trade facilitation and logistics in assisting countries to improve their trade environment. The note explores the required building blocks for facilitating cross-border e-commerce as to address the challenges raised and consist of: (a) improvement programs for creating a more conducive legal environment for automation; (b) improving automation and interconnectivity between agencies; (c) implementing simplified procedures to trade, including for e-commerce; and (d) implementing fully the World Trade Organizations (WTO’s) trade facilitation agreement. The note concludes with the summation that e-commerce offers new challenges and opportunities for governments and firms, but to maximize its benefits requires significant reform. This note has set out a path for countries to continuing the reform and modernization route with recommendations and an action matrix of specific improvements to the trade facilitation and logistics environment that will better position countries and firms to take advantage of the enormous potential that cross border e-commerce offers.