World Bank Technical Papers

45 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

Informal documents that present knowledge acquired through that Bank's operational experience. They contain material that is practical rather than theoretical and include state-of-the-art reports and how-to-do-it monographs. They can also concern matters that cut across sectoral lines, such as the environment and science and technology. This series was superseded by the World Bank Working Papers series in 2003 and the World Bank Studies series in 2010.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Technical Note on Accessibility: The Narrative
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-04-28) World Bank
    This technical note focuses on various dimensions of accessibility. The note describes various accessibility barriers, recommendations, methodologies, and strategies, with a particular focus on persons with disabilities. However, as highlighted throughout the entire document, it is stressed that accessibility is a universal issue that concerns a much larger population and intersects with other identities, including those of children, older persons, persons who have terminal or transient illnesses/diseases, women and girls, Indigenous Peoples, youth, sexual and gender minorities, people with temporary injuries, and mothers/fathers/caregivers using strollers and other supportive devices to carry their children. The technical note on accessibility is primarily meant for World Bank Task Team Leaders (TTLs), Project Implementing Units (PIUs) and Environmental & Social (E&S) specialists. However, it can also serve as a reference for other internal teams that are working on accessibility issues with the private sector (for example with the International Finance Corporation, IFC), and the procurement sector, as well as for the Bank’s development partners, borrowing countries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and organizations of persons with disabilities (OPDs). This note focuses primarily on Investment Project Financing (IPF).
  • Publication
    Furthering Judicial Education : Proceedings of the Conference of Judicial Schools in Latin America
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002) Malik, Waleed Haider; Larios Ochaita, Carlos Esteban
    The conference meeting was organized by the Supreme Court of Justice of Guatemala, in partnership with the World Bank, where judicial school directors, judges, practitioners, law students, and officials from different countries participated. The meeting aimed to harness good practices, and knowledge for furthering judicial education, based on the premise that the knowledge, and skills of judges, of court staff, and of other justice sector professionals, and users, impact significantly on the performance of the judicial system. Discussions centered around different themes, that included concepts of judicial excellence, judicial ethics, and the role of human rights, e-learning, and distance education, in-service training and evaluation methodologies, attitudinal change in the courts, and the role of education and strategies to inspire future generations of law students, and professionals. The report comprises various facets of judicial education, its challenges, and opportunities.
  • Publication
    Financing Efficiency and Equity in Albanian Education
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-06) Palomba, Geremia; Vodopivec, Milan
    This report compiles a rich set of previously unavailable data to define where the education sector in Albania has evolved, what key challenges remain, and the priority areas for action by the Albanian government. The report finds that four broad tasks must be tackled to improve education. The country must: 1) increase enrollment rates with the goal of achieving truly universal education in primary and lower secondary schools, and reversing the actual trend of decreasing secondary enrollment; 2) improve the quality of education, which requires developing human resource policies--such as teacher development programs and improved salaries--that will attract good teachers and give them incentives to perform well in classrooms; and providing an adequate physical school environment, which means, among other things, renovating and adequately maintaining school buildings; 3) increase public spending on education, which requires developing clear priorities and reducing relative spending on tertiary education; providing constant and reliable funding to support the identified policy priorities; and increasing spending on non-wage expenditures and investments; and 4) make better use of teachers and schoolsby decentralizing decisionmaking and responsibilities that are more reasonably delegated to the local level.
  • Publication
    Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia : Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-06) Vandycke, Nancy
    In Europe, and Central Asia, the poor faces three problems: 1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet adequately their needs; 2) the private cost of education has gone up, so that "education", as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and, 3) the perceived benefits of education (in terms of higher wage earning) are still low, thereby undermining long-term incentives to invest in education. The paper shows the discrepancy between Central European, and Former Soviet Union countries in the contribution of "education" for explaining wage earnings inequality. The discrepancy can be explained by factors such as the degree of private sector development, and the flexibility of the labor market. Although there remains a "taste" for education in Europe and Central Asia, there is also a risk that low-income groups, drop out of the education system, and irreversibly fall into poverty.
  • Publication
    Armenia : Restructuring to Sustain Universal General Education
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-03) Perkins, Gillian; Yemtsov, Ruslan
    Before the breakup of the Soviet Union, Armenia had a highly developed and expensive education system, matching the needs of the command economy. The country is now facing a challenge to sustain universal coverage and performance standards in primary-secondary education with a small fraction of the former budget, while reorienting the system to the needs of a democratic society and market economy. The purposes of this paper are to clarify the case for rationalization by quantifying the future cost implications and affordability of various educational policy options, and to identify further measures needed in Armenia to promote restructuring and to secure adequate financing of the education system over the medium term. The paper examines recent evolution of the structure of inputs and expenditure to general education in Armenia in comparison with international norms and practice, and outlines various approaches that have been proposed for restructuring the system in the context of the government's sectoral reform strategy. Conclusions are drawn concerning the depth of rationalization and the financing strategy that would be needed to sustain universal access and quality of the system over the medium term. Finally, some of the practical and institutional obstacles to actually implementing rationalization are identified, and measures are proposed to help overcome these constraints.