World Bank Technical Papers

45 items available

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Informal documents that present knowledge acquired through that Bank's operational experience. They contain material that is practical rather than theoretical and include state-of-the-art reports and how-to-do-it monographs. They can also concern matters that cut across sectoral lines, such as the environment and science and technology. This series was superseded by the World Bank Working Papers series in 2003 and the World Bank Studies series in 2010.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Coping with the Cold : Heating Strategies for Eastern Europe and Central Asia's Urban Poor
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002) Lampietti, Julian A.
    Heating is a critical issue for the livelihoods of Eastern Europe and Central Asia's people. The region's gold climate, the legacy of central planning, and the drop in household incomes over the past 10 years, influence profoundly the design of heating strategies for the urban poor. This paper provides new insights into how much energy people demand for heating, and how much they pay for it. Recommendations are suggested on how to design policies, and investment planning, that would enable all people (poor and non-poor) to access clean, affordable heating.
  • Publication
    Generating Public Sector Resources to Finance Sustainable Development : Revenue and Incentive Effects
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002) Pagiola, Stefano; Martin-Hurtado, Roberto; Shyamsundar, Priya; Mani, Muthukumara; Silva, Patricia
    The paper discusses how developing countries can generate some of the resources they need for sustainable development. Developing country government already spend significant amounts of resources on a variety of activities, but the evidence suggests that sometimes, there is substantial scope for them to generate additional resources, and most importantly perhaps, to free substantial amounts of resources which are currently being used inefficiently. The paper attempts at setting the scope on the magnitude of resources that might be generated, or freed by a variety of public sector actions. It begins by examining the potential to reform existing policies which are not only costly, but often unsustainable, and environmentally damaging. Then, it reviews means for generating new financial flows, capturing greater share of rents from natural resources, and instituting "green" levies. Lessons suggest as a potential source of additional revenues, the reform of subsidies, making sub-sectors financially sustainable, reforms which in turn reduce environmental damage, but considering reform policies that would not inadvertently harm the poor. This requires political will, good governance, capacity building, and investment.
  • Publication
    Breathing Clean : Considering the Switch to Natural Gas Buses
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-10) Kojima, Masami
    In response to emerging epidemiological evidence of the toxicity of diesel vehicular emissions, there is growing interest in substituting conventional diesel with much cleaner natural gas in cities where ambient concentrations of particulate matter are markedly higher than what is internationally considered acceptable. This paper compares the performance of natural gas and conventional diesel buses, and outlines the barriers to the adoption of natural gas buses in developing countries. In the absence of emissions standards that effectively require natural gas, natural gas-fueled buses are unlikely to be adopted because they are more expensive to operate relative to diesel buses. The social case for replacing diesel with natural gas a fuel for buses rests on environmental grounds. If a local government decides that the reduction in air pollution associated with the substitution of conventional diesel with natural gas for use in buses is worth the cost, then it needs to adopt policies to encourage the switch to natural gas. These might include emissions standards for buses, or fuel and vehicle taxes that reflect marginal social costs. The contribution of exhaust emissions from buses to the ambient concentrations of harmful pollutants needs to be quantified so that associated health damage costs can be estimated.
  • Publication
    Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-09) Kojima, Masami; Lovei, Magda
    Transport-related air pollution is increasingly contributing to environmental health risks in many developing country cities. The social costs of poor urban quality can be significant, making this issue an immediate priority. Long-term measures for dealing with the problem include urban planning, and traffic demand management. This paper however, focuses primarily on cost-effective measures, that are feasible to implement, and that can bring measurable results in the short to medium term. There is a tendency in the environment sector, to focus narrowly on controlling emissions by importing the best available technology. Cost-effective, and sustainable solutions, however, require much broader approaches. In developing countries, improving air quality is not simply a matter of importing advanced technologies, while, choices concerning feasibility, sequencing, and timing of pollution reducing measures, have serious fiscal, and economic consequences. Thus the guiding principle for selection of strategies, should be the balancing of costs, benefits, and technical, and institutional feasibility. Monitoring, and enforcement are essential , but countries need to know the nature, and magnitude of the pollution problem, to determine the speed, and rigor with which policies should be implemented. Furthermore, pollution enforcement measures have implications on petroleum taxation, and on the tariff regime, as well as for traffic management.
  • Publication
    The Development of Electricity Markets in the Euro-Mediterranean Area : Trends and Prospects for Liberalization and Regional Integration
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-03) Muller-Jentsch, Daniel
    The main objective of this document is to map key policy issues that need to be addressed to successfully implement energy sector reform at the national, and regional levels, and, provides an overview of global, European, and Mediterranean trends, aiming at facilitating the dissemination of best practices. Chapter I describes international best practices in the design of legal, regulatory, and institutional sector framework, which include corporatization, and restructuring of state-owned energy utilities; separation of regulatory and operational functions, by creating coherent regulatory frameworks, establishing independent regulators, and promoting competition; engaging the electricity industry into generation, transmission, distribution, and trade; introduction of competition in generation, and trade, and, in the regulation of monopolistic activities; promotion of private participation; and, reduction of subsidies, and balance of tariffs. Chapters II and III examine power sector reform in the European Union (EU), and power sector policies of the Mediterranean partners, reviewing liberalization, regulatory institutions, and the development of electricity markets, and power trading in the EU. It specifies that despite recent progress, the main structural flaw of energy reform in the Mediterranean region, has been the lack of liberalization, and effective regulation, contrasting sharply with EU reforms, where the focus for electricity, and gas has been the introduction of competition. Chapter IV proposes an agenda for regional change, through sector reforms, promotion of energy policy, economic analysis, and interconnection, through technical assistance, and financial support, to create integrated, competitive cross-borders for power markets.
  • Publication
    District Energy Trends, Issues, and Opportunities : The Role of the World Bank
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-03) Gochenour, Carolyn
    This study reviews the history and development of district heating and district cooling, together referred to as district energy in North America, Western Europe, Asia, Eastern and Central Europe, and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Experience from other parts of the world where DH systems exist could be beneficial to DH industry managers and regulators in Eastern and Central Europe and FSU countries in modernizing their management systems and improving their policies and practices to allow for the attraction of capital that is urgently needed. The report reviews, in a systematic manner, the key institutional, economic, financial, technical, and environmental issues in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the FSU with the goal of arriving at operationally relevant issues and defining the awareness and understanding of the nature of activities which can lead to increasing energy efficiency and the attractiveness of district energy to private financing.