Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 167
  • Publication
    GRI Index 2022
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-12-31) World Bank
    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index covers activities carried out during fiscal 2022, from July 1, 2021, through June 30, 2022. The World Bank welcomed many colleagues back to its facilities this year. The institution continues to adapt its work model to protect staff health and well-being while recognizing the value of physical interaction in delivering high-quality results for clients and career development. This report notes any significant residual impacts of COVID-19 on the institution’s operations and staff.
  • Publication
    Philippines Economic Update: Bracing for Headwinds, Advancing Food Security
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-12) World Bank
    The Philippines economic update (PEU) summarizes key economic and social developments, important policy changes, and the evolution of external conditions over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank analyses, situating them in the context of the country’s long-term development trends and assessing their implications for the country’s medium-term economic outlook. The update covers issues ranging from macroeconomic management and financial-market dynamics to the complex challenges of poverty reduction and social development. It is intended to serve the needs of a wide audience, including policymakers, business leaders, private firms and investors, and analysts and professionals engaged in the social and economic development of the Philippines.
  • Publication
    Digital Technology for Traceability in Vietnam’s Fruit and Vegetable Value Chains
    (Washington, DC, 2022-12) World Bank
    The purpose of this study was to assess the current state of existing traceability systems in Vietnam’s fruit and vegetable (F&V) value chains, examine pertinent policies and regulations, share international good practices and explore their potential applicability to Vietnam, and examine the current legal and institutional framework governing agri-food traceability in Vietnam and some major export markets (for example, the European Union [EU], Italy, China, and the Republic of Korea [Korea]). The study identified potential intervention areas and made recommendations to policy makers and food business operators (FBOs) in Vietnam regarding the implementation of digital traceability systems and the regulatory environmentthat facilitates their use. The interventions aim to contribute to lowering the incidence levels of specific hazards in perishable products in the F&V value chains, increasing FBOs’ compliance, enhancing consumer awareness of food safety, and strengthening the food safety regulatory system. Additionally, the interventions would contribute to re-establishing public confidence in the quality and safety of Vietnamese agri-food as well as its current food safety oversight regime.
  • Publication
    Nigeria Development Update December 2022 - Nigeria's Choice
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-11-30) World Bank
    Nigeria’s economic performance has weakened since the previous Nigeria Development Update (NDU) was published in June 2022 under the title of “The Continuing Urgency of Business Unusual”. The global economic environment has weakened. Economic activity in most major economies has slowed in 2022 amid high inflation and central banks shifting toward contractionary monetary policies. External financing conditions, particularly for governments and private borrowers in frontier markets such as Nigeria, have tightened, as the US dollar has appreciated sharply against most other currencies to historically strong levels, and global benchmark interest rates have risen. Moving into 2023, growth in most regions is expected to weaken further, and uncertainty regarding the outlook remains elevated, partly because of key unknowns such as future developments related to the Russian Federation's invasion of Ukraine.
  • Publication
    Egypt - The First Sovereign Green Bond in the Middle East and North Africa: Case Study
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-11-01) World Bank
    Sustainable debt is loan or bond financing that helps mitigate or address a specific environmental or social concern or achieve positive environmental or social outcomes. The term environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing, often used interchangeably with sustainable investing, denotes an investment approach wherein investors apply nonfinancial factors related to ESG issues in their investment analysis to identify risks and opportunities. The practice of ESG investing began in the 1960s as socially responsible investing, with investors excluding stocks or entire industries from their portfolios to avoid investing in morally questionable businesses. In recent years, ESG investing has garnered tremendous interest because of the recognition of environmental and social risks to the global economy; the urgency that the Paris Agreement and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development have created; and the resulting impetus to finance initiatives that help limit global warming, environmental degradation, and various social problems. Investors use a variety of strategies, including negative or exclusionary screening, positive screening, integration of ESG considerations, thematic and impact investing, and active ownership and stewardship, to incorporate ESG considerations into their investment processes. Climate change, resource scarcity, and demographic and social change feature prominently in several investment strategies. Impact investments are often made to address challenges in sectors such as sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, conservation, microfinance, and affordable and accessible basic services, including housing, health care, and education.
  • Publication
    Performance Assessment of Serbia’s Environmental and Climate Institutions: Focus on Addressing Energy-Sector Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    (Washington, DC, 2022-11) World Bank
    Policy credibility and effectiveness and strong institutional capacities are essential to achieving a green and just transition in Serbia. This assessment focuses on the performance of institutions at both the national and subnational levels, and is aimed at addressing Serbia’s air pollution and climate change mitigation challenges to prepare these institutions for the transition to a low-carbon and green economy. In this assessment, the term ‘institutions’ refers to public institutions. Their performance is analyzed in several ways; including by assessing the overall institutional set-up, related capacities, gaps, and coordination mechanisms; presenting regulatory framework in these areas and in terms of strategic orientation and alignment with key EU acquis; and analyzing the role of institutions as part of an enabling environment for fostering investments.
  • Publication
    The Economics of Electric Vehicles for Passenger Transportation (Draft)
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-10-31) Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Qiao, Wenxin; Foster, Vivien
    NOTE: The draft report is no longer available. The final report is available from this page and at https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/39513. Electric mobility has garnered growing interest and significant momentum across several major global markets, often motivated by transport sector decarbonization. Together, Europe, China, and the United States account for more than 90 percent of the world’s electric vehicle fleet. For many OECD countries, electric mobility is seen primarily as a lever for transport sector decarbonization, given that many of the other relevant policy options have already been exhausted. This report finds that electric mobility is also increasingly relevant for low- and middle-income countries. As of today, electric mobility for passengers is a comparative rarity across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In some of the LMIC leading markets, such as Brazil, India, and Indonesia, electric vehicles account for less than 0.5 percent of total sales. There are signs that this situation is changing. India, Chile, and Brazil are leading the way in electrifying their bus fleets in their largest cities by introducing innovative financing practices and improved procurement practices. Battery swapping schemes are taking off in Asian and East African countries to lower the upfront cost of two-and three-wheelers. Original modeling for this report suggests that established global policy targets, such as 30 percent of new passenger vehicles to be electric by 2030, will make economic sense for many LMICs under a wide range of possible scenarios.
  • Publication
    Adaptive Social Protection in Southern Africa
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-10-31) World Bank
    The countries of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) - Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa are exposed to climatic shocks, especially drought, that pose a continual threat to lives and livelihoods across the subregion. The pandemic has compounded these existing vulnerabilities. Climatic shocks such as these tend to affect the poorest most, exacerbating inequalities and increasing poverty. Food insecurity, which is chronic in the subregion and both a root cause of vulnerability to drought and an outcome of it also increased as a result of impacts from the pandemic. Social safety net programs can help poor and vulnerable households manage the risks they face from shocks, helping to mitigate the impacts on poverty and food insecurity, but their effectiveness can be constrained in several ways. The mobilization of social protection in response to COVID-19 and the challenges that have emerged to that mobilization have strengthened the case for investments in preparedness ahead of future shocks. Adaptive social protection refers to an agenda for preparing social protection systems to improve their response to shocks and to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households. This report takes stock of ASP in four of the five SACU countries and provides targeted recommendations for each country’s development.
  • Publication
    Public Services and COVID-19: Reflections from the Pacific - Trust
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-10-24) World Bank
    The purpose of this note is to identify good practice in public sector management drawn from Pacific Island public service experiences of navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. These experiences were brought together through a World Bank engagement with Pacific Island countries in 2021 and 2022. The engagement identified five core aspects of Pacific Island public service management in response to COVID-19: trust, preparation, adaptable system settings, adaptable operating models, and sustainable wage bills. This first note in the series of five focuses on the importance of trust. The primary audience is public service leaders in Pacific Islands. The note will also be of interest to anyone working on designing and leading public sector management systems through rapid change, uncertainty and crises.
  • Publication
    Economic and Social Impacts of the Recent Crises in Tonga: Insights from the April-May 2022 Round of High Frequency Phone Surveys
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-10-21) World Bank
    This report includes: the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HT-HH) volcanic eruption (January 15, 2022) and a subsequent tsunami, COVID-19 outbreak and the associated lockdown (starting on February 2); to assess and monitor the economic and social impacts of the crises, the World Bank launched household-level HFPS with a plan to collect 6 rounds of surveys until mid-2024; surveys interview the same households across rounds to monitor various socio-economic outcomes and inform policy and government programs; and similar HFPS have been implemented in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands with Vanuatu and Fiji in the pipeline, under the World Bank Pacific Observatory initiative