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  • Publication
    Fintech and the Future of Finance: Market and Policy Implications
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-03-10) Feyen, Erik; Natarajan, Harish; Saal, Matthew
    Fintech—the application of digital technology to financial services—is reshaping the future of finance. Digital technologies are revolutionizing payments, lending, investment, insurance, and other financial products and services—and the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated this process. Digitalization of financial services and money is helping to bridge gaps in access to financial services for households and firms and is promoting economic development. Improved access to basic financial services translates into better firm productivity and growth for micro and small businesses, as well as higher incomes and resilience to improve the lives of the poor. Technology can lower transaction costs by overcoming geographical access barriers; increasing the speed, security, and transparency of transactions; and allowing for more tailored financial services that better serve consumers, including the poor. Women can especially benefit. Yet too many people and firms still lack access to essential financial services that could help them thrive. It is time for policy makers to embrace fintech opportunities and implement policies that enable and encourage safe financial innovation and adoption. Fintech and the Future of Finance: Market and Policy Implications explores the implications of fintech and the digital transformation of financial services for market outcomes, on the one hand, and regulation and supervision, on the other hand—and how these interact. The report, which provides a high-level perspective for senior policy makers, is accompanied by notes that focus on salient issues for a more technical audience. As the financial sector continues to transform itself, policy trade-offs will evolve, and regulators will need to ensure that market outcomes remain aligned with core policy objectives. Several policy implications emerge. 1. Manage risks, while fostering beneficial innovation and competition. 2. Broaden monitoring horizons and reassess regulatory perimeters. 3. Review regulatory, supervisory, and oversight frameworks. 4. Be mindful of evolving policy trade-offs as fintech adoption deepens. 5. Monitor market structure and conduct to maintain competition. 6. Modernize and open financial infrastructures. 7. Ensure public money remains fit for the digital world. 8. Pursue strong cross-border coordination and sharing of information and best practices.
  • Publication
    Global Waves of Debt: Causes and Consequences
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-03-02) Kose, M. Ayhan; Nagle, Peter; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Sugawara, Naotaka
    The global economy has experienced four waves of rapid debt accumulation over the past 50 years. The first three debt waves ended with financial crises in many emerging market and developing economies. During the current wave, which started in 2010, the increase in debt in these economies has already been larger, faster, and broader-based than in the previous three waves. Current low interest rates mitigate some of the risks associated with high debt. However, emerging market and developing economies are also confronted by weak growth prospects, mounting vulnerabilities, and elevated global risks. A menu of policy options is available to reduce the likelihood that the current debt wave will end in crisis and, if crises do take place, will alleviate their impact.
  • Publication
    Analyzing Banking Risk (4th Edition): A Framework for Assessing Corporate Governance and Risk Management
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-06-08) Van Greuning, Hennie
    This publication provides a comprehensive overview of topics focusing on assessment, analysis, and management of financial risks in banking. It emphasizes risk management principles and stresses that key players in the corporate governance process are accountable for managing the different dimensions of financial and other risks. This fourth edition remains faithful to the objectives of the original publication. The new business aspects affecting banking risks, such as mobile banking, and regulatory changes over the past decade—specifically those related to Basel III capital adequacy concepts—have been included, as have new operational risk management topics, such as cybercrime, money laundering, and outsourcing. This publication will be of interest to a wide body of users of bank financial data. The target audience includes the persons responsible for the analysis of banks and for the senior management or organizations directing their efforts. Because the publication provides an overview of the spectrum of corporate governance and risk management, it is not aimed at technical specialists of any particular risk management area.
  • Publication
    Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2019/2020: Rebuilding Investor Confidence in Times of Uncertainty
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-05-27) World Bank Group
    The Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2019/2020 provides novel analytical insights, empirical evidence, and actionable recommendations for governments seeking to rebuild investor confidence in times of uncertainty. It focuses on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in alleviating the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and boosting countries’ economic resilience. It highlights FDI’s contributions to providing a critical source of external finance, creating jobs, lifting people out of poverty, and raising productivity. The report presents results of a survey of more than 2,400 business executives representing multinational corporations in 10 large developing countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. Results of the survey, as well as the report’s new global database of regulatory risk, highlight the critical role of government actions in reducing investor risk and increasing policy predictability for rebuilding investor confidence. The report also assesses the impact of FDI on poverty, inequality, employment, and business performance using firm- and household-level evidence from various countries. It shows that FDI in developing countries yields benefits to firms and workers—including more and better-paid jobs—but governments need to remain vigilant about possible adverse consequences on income distribution. Lastly, the report articulates priorities for investment promotion agencies and other stakeholders seeking to strengthen their countries’ investment competitiveness and leverage FDI for a robust economic recovery.
  • Publication
    Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies: Evolution, Drivers and Policies
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019) Ha, Jongrim; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Ha, Jongrim; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Ivanova, Anna; Laborde, David; Lakatos, Csilla; Martin, Will; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Montiel, Peter J.; Panizza, Ugo; Pedroni, Peter; Stocker, Marc; Unsal, Filiz D.; Vorisek, Dana; Yilmazkuday, Hakan
    Emerging market and developing economies, like advanced economies, have experienced a remarkable decline in inflation over the past half-century. Yet, research into this development has focused almost exclusively on advanced economies. This book fills that gap, providing the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of inflation in emerging market and developing economies. It examines how inflation has evolved and become synchronized among economies; what drives inflation globally and domestically; where inflation expectations have become better-anchored; and how exchange rate fluctuations can pass through to inflation. To reach its conclusions, the book employs cutting edge empirical approaches. It also offers a rich data set of multiple measures of inflation for a virtually global sample of countries over a half-century to spur further research into this important topic.
  • Publication
    Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018-04-19) Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Hess, Jake
    The Global Findex database is the world's most comprehensive set of data on how people make payments, save money, borrow and manage risk. Launched in 2011, it includes more than 100 financial inclusion indicators in a format allowing users to compare access to financial services among adults worldwide -- including by gender, age and household income. This third edition of the database was compiled in 2017 using nationally representative surveys in more than 140 developing and high-income countries. The database includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. It features additional data on Fintech and digital financial services, including the use of mobile phones and internet technology to conduct financial transactions. Global Findex data is utilized to track progress toward the World Bank's goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020 and the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. The data also is a source for the G20 Financial Inclusion Indicators and a benchmark for policymakers seeking to expand access to and use of financial services. Lastly, this report discusses opportunities to expand access to financial services among the unbanked, and ways to promote greater use of digital financial services among the underbanked.
  • Publication
    Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2017/2018: Foreign Investor Perspectives and Policy Implications
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018) World Bank Group
    This inaugural issue of the World Bank Group’s Global Investment Competitiveness Report presents novel analytical insights and empirical evidence on foreign direct investment’s (FDI) drivers and contributions to economic transformation. Three key features distinguish this report from other leading FDI studies. Firstly, its insights come from a variety of sources, including a new survey of investor perspectives, extensive analysis of available data and evidence, and a thorough review of international best practices in investment policy design and implementation. Secondly, the report provides targeted, in-depth analysis of FDI differentiated by motivation, sector, and geographic origin and destination of investment. Thirdly, the report offers practical and actionable recommendations to developing country governments. The report’s groundbreaking survey of more than 750 executives of multinational corporations investing in developing countries finds that—in addition to political stability, security, and macroeconomic conditions—a business-friendly legal and regulatory environment is the key driver of investment decisions. The report also explores the potential of FDI to create new growth opportunities for local firms, assesses the effectiveness of fiscal incentives in attracting FDI, analyzes the characteristics of FDI originating in developing countries—so-called South–South and South–North FDI—and examines the experience of foreign investors in countries afflicted by conflict and fragility.
  • Publication
    Global Report on Islamic Finance: Islamic Finance - A Catalyst for Shared Prosperity?
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2017-02-20) World Bank; Islamic Development Bank Group
    Income inequality has increased considerably in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08 to the extent that one percent of global population possess almost half of the global assets. Whereas the development community is unanimous to tackle growing inequality and imbalance in the distribution of wealth, there is a difference of opinion as to the approaches to achieve this goal. This report presents a perspective from Islamic finance on how shared prosperity can be enhanced. The theoretical framework for economic development by Islamic economics and finance is based on four fundamental pillars: (i) an institutional framework and public policy oriented to the development objectives of Islam; (ii) prudent governance and accountable leadership; (iii) promotion of the economic and financial system based on risk sharing; and (iv) financial and social inclusion for all, promoting development, growth, and shared prosperity. There is evidence that Islamic finance is experiencing high growth with the banking sector leading the way. Several countries are working seriously towards developing standards, regulation and legal frameworks for the development of Islamic finance. However, there are a number of aspects where policy interventions or improvements in policy effectiveness are needed to develop Islamic finance to promote shared prosperity. Without the enabling environment, Islamic finance may not be able to attain the potential expected of it. With adequate policy interventions and enabling financial infrastructure, Islamic finance could become a catalyst for alleviating poverty and inclusive prosperity. The key findings of the report include a need for sound regulatory framework for Islamic financial institutions due to the obvious differences from the conventional banks, harmonizing of Shariah standards and more discourse related to the underlying mechanism of Islamic financial products. Islamic capital markets both equity and Sukuk (Islamic bonds) are vital for the development of Islamic financial markets. Finally, instruments of Islamic social finance and redistribution could contribute further to enhance the shared prosperity.
  • Publication
    Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016, Third Edition
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2016-05-02) World Bank Group
    The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 attempts to present numbers and facts behind the stories of international migration and remittances, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. It provides a snapshot of statistics on immigration, emigration, skilled emigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 regional and income groups. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 updates the 2011 edition of the Factbook with additional data on bilateral migration and remittances and second generation diasporas, collected from various sources, including national censuses, labor force surveys, population registers, and other national sources.
  • Publication
    The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015
    (Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2015-06-01) World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015 comes out at a promising time for the continent: for 15 years growth rates have averaged over 5 percent, and rapid population growth holds the promise of a large emerging consumer market as well as an unprecedented labor force that - if leveraged - can provide significant growth opportunities. Moreover, the expansion of innovative business models, such as mobile technology services, is indicative of the continents growth potential. However, Africa continues to be largely agrarian, with an economy that is underpinned by resource-driven growth and a large and expanding informal sector. Indeed, more than a decade of consistently high growth rates have not yet trickled down to significant parts of the population: nearly one out of two Africans continue to live in extreme poverty, and income inequality in the region remains among the highest in the world. What is more, across sectors - from agriculture to manufacturing and services - productivity levels remain low. It will be necessary to raise productivity across all sectors of the economy to achieve higher growth and create quality employment, and turn this progress into sustainable inclusive growth.