Stand alone books

504 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 38
  • Publication
    Voice and Agency : Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity
    (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014) Klugman, Jeni; Hanmer, Lucia; Twigg, Sarah; Hasan, Tazeen; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Santamaria, Julieth
    The 2012 World Development Report recognized that expanding women's agency - their ability to make decisions and take advantage of opportunities is key to improving their lives as well as the world. This report represents a major advance in global knowledge on this critical front. The vast data and thousands of surveys distilled in this report cast important light on the nature of constraints women and girls continue to face globally. This report identifies promising opportunities and entry points for lasting transformation, such as interventions that reach across sectors and include life-skills training, sexual and reproductive health education, conditional cash transfers, and mentoring. It finds that addressing what the World Health Organization has identified as an epidemic of violence against women means sharply scaling up engagement with men and boys. The report also underlines the vital role information and communication technologies can play in amplifying women's voices, expanding their economic and learning opportunities, and broadening their views and aspirations. The World Bank Group's twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity demand no less than the full and equal participation of women and men, girls and boys, around the world.
  • Publication
    Diaspora for Development in Africa
    (World Bank, 2011-04-26) Ratha, Dilip
    The diaspora of developing countries can be a potent force for development for their countries of origin, through remittances, but also, importantly, through promotion of trade, investments, research, innovation, and knowledge and technology transfers. This book brings relevant experience from both developed and developing countries to bear on issues confronting today's governments in linking with their diaspora. The chapters present different approaches used by countries that have tried to maximize the possible gains from migration by engaging more comprehensively with different diaspora groups and individuals. Some African countries are pursuing policies to develop links with Africans abroad, either to encourage them to return or to use their skills, knowledge, or financial capital to foster African development. The book discusses concrete examples of diaspora initiatives that are being implemented in Africa. There are comprehensive reviews on how the diaspora can promote trade and investment linkages. Some developing countries are using dual citizenship to deepen ties with their diaspora. The book directly addresses the issues of remittances-linked financial instruments, investments by the diaspora, diaspora bonds, contributions of skilled and unskilled diaspora in transferring knowledge, analytical research on return migration, and concrete circular migration experiences. There is a need to have a better understanding of these initiatives and to see whether they can be scaled up or replicated in other countries worldwide.
  • Publication
    Leveraging Migration for Africa : Remittances, Skills, and Investments
    (World Bank, 2011-04-26) Ratha, Dilip; Ozden, Caglar; Shaw, William; Shimeles, Abebe
    International migration has profound implications for human welfare, and African governments have had only a limited influence on welfare outcomes, for good or ill. Improved efforts to manage migration will require information on the nature and impact of migratory patterns. This book seeks to contribute toward this goal, by reviewing previous research and providing new analyses (including surveys and case studies) as well as by formulating policy recommendations that can improve the migration experience for migrants, origin countries, and destination countries. The book comprises this introduction and summary and four chapters. Chapter one reviews the data on African migration and considers the challenges African governments face in managing migration. Chapter two discusses the importance of remittances, the most tangible link between migration and development; it also identifies policies that can facilitate remittance flows to Africa and increase their development impact. Chapter three analyzes high-skilled emigration and analyzes policies that can limit adverse implications and maximize positive implications for development. Chapter four considers ways in which Africa can leverage its diaspora resources to increase trade, investment, and access to technology.
  • Publication
    Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011 : Second Edition
    (World Bank, 2011) World Bank
    There are more than 215 million international migrants in the world. Recorded remittances received by developing countries, estimated to be US$325 billion in 2010, far exceed the volume of official aid flows and constitute more than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in many developing countries. Migration and remittances factbook 2011 provides a comprehensive picture of emigration, skilled emigration, immigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 country groups, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. The current edition of the factbook updates the information in the popular 2008 edition with additional data for 71 countries collected from various sources, including national censuses, labor force surveys, population registers, and other national sources. In addition, it provides selected socioeconomic characteristics such as population, labor force, age dependency ratio, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and poverty headcount for each country and regional grouping. More frequent and timely monitoring of migration and remittance trends can provide policy makers, researchers, and the development community with the tools to make informed decisions. The factbook makes an important contribution to this effort by providing the latest available data and facts on migration and remittance trends worldwide in a comprehensive and readily accessible format.
  • Publication
    Tanzania: Country Brief
    (World Bank, 2009) World Bank
    The name Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika, the mainland, and Zanzibar, the nearby archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The two united to become the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. With a surface area of 947,300 square kilometers, Tanzania is comparable in size to Nigeria and is slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state of California. Tanzania's population of approximately 40.4 million (as of 2007) is the second largest in East Africa, after Ethiopia's. Dar es Salaam, the most populous city, contains approximately 2.7 million people and accounts for most commercial activity. Swahili (or Kiswahili) and English are the two official languages of Tanzania. A large number of local languages are also spoken. In Zanzibar, Arabic is commonly used. Agriculture remains the mainstay of Tanzania's economy, accounting for one-quarter of gross domestic product (GDP) and approximately 80 percent of employment. Tanzania is endowed with mineral and natural resources, including gold, diamonds, and several other precious and semiprecious stones. The blue gemstone tanzanite is found only in Tanzania. Tanzania accounted for almost two percent of world gold production as of 2006. Tanzania has a long history of hosting refugee's fleeing civil wars in nearby countries. As of January 2008, there were more than 380,000 refugees living in Tanzania, predominantly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Tanzania is an up-market tourism destination. The country is endowed with a variety of tourism assets, including seven United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage sites and numerous wildlife parks, beach resorts, coral reefs, and spectacular scenic mountain views.
  • Publication
    Youth Employment in Sierra Leone : Sustainable Livelihood Opportunities in a Post-conflict Setting
    (World Bank, 2009) Peeters, Pia; Cunningham, Wendy; Acharya, Gayatri; Van Adams, Arvil
    This study focuses on short- and medium-term solutions. It informs the government about the type of programs and policies that could improve the employability of young people, paying special attention to areas in which productivity can be rapidly improved. The report consists of six chapters. Chapter two profiles young people in Sierra Leone. Chapter three examines young people in the labor market, with a focus on the labor supply side of the equation (that is, the skills young people bring to the labor market). Chapter four turns to employers (the demand side of the labor market) to better understand why they do or do not employ young people. Chapter five reviews skill development programs to enhance employability of young people in Sierra Leone and other countries and presents policy options for improving worker skills (supply side) and employer interest (demand side). Chapter six summarizes the lessons from the analysis and concludes with policy and program recommendations.
  • Publication
    Reshaping Economic Geography in East Asia
    (World Bank, 2009) Huang, Yukon; Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro
    Reshaping economic geography in East Asia illustrates how extensively spatial factors have influenced and informed by growth and development in the region. This study was conceived as a companion volume to and informed by the World Development Report (WDR) 2009: reshaping economic geography. By providing case studies and illustrative examples and by deepening the understanding of the forces of economic geography in the East Asia region, this work helped to substantiate some of the key concepts in the WDR 2009. There is full consistency in terms of the analytical framework used and broad agreement on how economic geography has influenced growth trends across a diverse range of countries. Reshaping economic geography in East Asia also highlights the dramatic urbanization process under way in the region, evidenced by the number of globally recognized 'mega cities'. Seven of the world's 21 mega cities are in East Asia. Cities in East Asia generate about three-quarters of annual output and between a half and two-thirds of exports. Often, much of this is concentrated in one major city: Bangkok. Bangkok accounts for 40 percent of Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) and Manila for 30 percent. Other major centers such as Guangzhou, Jakarta, Seoul, Shanghai, and Tokyo are seen as driving their economies. East Asian cities have been able to deliver the agglomeration benefits required for growth and are now exceptionally well connected to the global economy. The region, excluding Japan, is home to 16 of the largest 25 seaports in the world and 14 of the largest 25 container ports. Without this improved connectivity, the region's rapid expansion in trade volumes will not have been possible. This collection of studies is organized in four sections. The first section comprises chapters dealing with the 'context and concepts' for this volume. The second deals with Southeast Asia, specifically, the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The third deals with Northeast Asia: China and the Republic of Korea, and the fourth section provide an overview of lessons learned. The time perspective for most of the studies spans several decades; in many cases, outcomes and policies can be traced back half a century or more.
  • Publication
    Closing the Coverage Gap : The Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers
    (World Bank, 2009) Holzmann, Robert; Robalino, David A.
    The book has four specific objectives: (a) to discuss the role of retirement income transfers in the context of a strategy for expanding old- age income security and preventing poverty among the elderly; (b) to take stock of international experience with the design and implementation of these programs; (c) to identify key policy issues that need to receive attention during the design and implementation phases; and (d) to offer some preliminary policy recommendations and propose next steps. The chapter one discusses the rationale for retirement income transfers. The main justifications are the limited coverage of the mandatory pension systems (chapter two) and the risk of poverty during old age (chapter three). Chapter four then examines the rights, based approach to expansion of social security coverage based on the conventions and recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO). The middle part of the book deals with international experience. Chapters five, six, and seven reviews selected programs in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries, respectively, and chapters eight and nine discuss in greater depth the cases of Japan and the Republic of Korea. The five concluding chapters are concerned with policy issues as related to design. Chapter ten presents a typology of retirement income transfers and analyzes the potential economic impacts of the programs. Chapter eleven deals with financing mechanisms and the problem of allocative efficiency, given limited resources. Chapter twelve addresses two key issues related to institutional arrangements and targeting systems: Should countries consider separate programs to target the elderly poor instead of using the general social assistance system to target all poor? And, how can current proxy means-test systems be adapted to target the elderly poor? Chapter thirteen explores in more detail the links between social pensions and matching contributions in the context of a general strategy for expanding coverage. Finally, chapter fourteen provides guidelines for the design of the administrative systems needed to operationalize the various programs. The remainder of this overview summarizes the main messages from the subsequent chapters and outlines an agenda for future research and policy analysis. For clarity, it starts by presenting some definitions pertinent to the retirement income transfers discussed in the book.
  • Publication
    Intensifying the Fight Against Malaria : The World Bank's Booster Program for Malaria Control in Africa
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2009) World Bank
    This document describes the purpose and context of the Booster Program, its first three years of operation and the proposed design of phase two of the program. Phase two seeks to build on the successes of and lessons learned from phase one and to enable the World Bank to play its expected role in scaling up and sustaining malaria control interventions to reach the new ambitious but achievable global goal set by the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership, of eliminating malaria as a major public health problem in Africa by 2015. The Bank has subscribed fully to this agenda, as illustrated by statements made by senior management in several public forums.
  • Publication
    The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape : Selected Papers for the World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011
    (World Bank, 2009) Lule, Elizabeth L.; Seifman, Richard M.; David, Antonio C.
    The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a long-term development challenge for the region. Nearly 12 million African children have been orphaned as a result of the disease, and 22.5 million people in Africa 61 percent of them women live with HIV. The hyperepidemics in Southern Africa have diluted poverty reduction efforts and in several countries substantially reduced life expectancy. The critical need to address this development problem is reflected in the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), which seeks to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to make access to treatment for HIV/AIDS universal for all those who need it by 2010. With Sub-Saharan Africa representing nearly two-thirds of those living with HIV globally, and the fact that human development indicators of several countries in the region lag far behind the rest of the world, prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa reaching any of the MDG goals will require a sustained response to HIV/AIDS. Reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS is closely linked to combating other major diseases referenced in sixth MDG, promoting gender equality (MDG 3), reducing child mortality (MDG 4) and improving maternal health (MDG 5).