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Financing Cities : Fiscal Responsibility and Urban Infrastructure in Brazil, China, India, Poland and South Africa(New Dehli : Sage Publications and World Bank, 2007) Clarke Annez, Patricia ; Peterson, George E.This book, Financing cities, emphasized case studies on different topics to look at the interactions of a range of variables and factors and to see how they fit together. Rather than require each case to follow the same format, the authors have structured their papers around the issues that matter most from their perspective in addressing the topic in hand. The first part of this book presents case studies describing the framework established at the national level to promote urban infrastructure finance while ensuring fiscal discipline and reviewing recent experience as well as future challenges. The subjects covered include the impact of political and fiscal decentralization, limitations on borrowing, managing moral hazard, the role of the financial sector, the achieving of the right balance between stringent controls and encouragement of local governments taking responsibility for fiscal discipline coupled with market discipline. The cases featured include three of the world's largest decentralized nations; together the five countries featured in the conference account for nearly a third of the world's urban population. Part I includes case studies for each of the five countries featured in the conference: Brazil (Chapter 1), China (Chapter 2), India (Chapter 3), Poland (Chapter 4) and South Africa (Chapter 5). Part II then shifts from the frameworks for fiscal discipline to urban infrastructure investments and the strategies used to mobilize investment funding. Chapters 6 and 7 examine the financing strategies for urban infrastructure in Shanghai and Brazil respectively. The next two chapters focus on specialized intermediaries offering urban infrastructure finance in cities. One is a fully private venture in South Africa (Chapter 9) while the other, in Tamil Nadu, India (Chapter 8), is a spin-off of a government fund with minority private ownership. The final two chapters examine experiences with two other mechanisms for mobilizing funding for infrastructure investments from the private sector, land leasing and sales (Chapter 10) and private participation in infrastructure operations (Chapter 11).
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006) Coudouel, Aline ; Dani, Anis A. ; Paternostro, StefanoPoverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) is an approach used increasingly by governments, civil society organizations, the World Bank, and other development partners to examine the distributional impacts of policy reforms on the well-being of different stakeholders groups, particularly the poor and vulnerable. PSIA has an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing countries because it promotes evidence-based policy choices and fosters debate on policy reform options. This publication presents a collection of case studies that illustrate the spectrum of sectors and policy reforms to which PSIA can be applied; it also elaborates on the broad range of analytical tools and techniques that can be used for PSIA. The case studies provide examples of the impact that PSIA can have on the design of policy reforms and draw operational lessons for PSIA implementation. The case studies deal largely with policy reforms in a single sector, such as agriculture (crop marketing boards in Malawi and Tanzania and cotton privatization in Tajikistan); energy (mining sector in Romania and oil subsidies in Ghana); utilities (power sector reform in Ghana, Rwanda, and transition economies, and water sector reform in Albania); social sectors (education reform in Mozambique and social welfare reform in Sri Lanka); taxation reform (Nicaragua); as well as macroeconomic modeling (Burkina Faso).
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005) Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory FacilityThe Country Framework Report (CFR) for Angola is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for private sector involvement in infrastructure. The report seeks to assist the Government of Angola in developing policies, and a framework to promote private participation in the rebuilding, and development of the country's infrastructure. Following the years of conflict, and the resulting damage to the country's infrastructure, as well as the negative impacts on economic growth and development, the country's investment needs are enormous. This study is particularly focused on how to maximize the private sector's role and contribution. The report's scope is on investment in infrastructure in the following sectors: electricity and gas; water and sanitation; transport; and, telecommunications. For each sector, a separate section in the report covers the current situation, opportunities for private sector participation in infrastructure (PPI), PPI barriers, and, measures and actions to promote more private involvement. A further section covers cross-sectoral issues. This CFR concludes with an action plan that identifies the steps that need to be taken to promote, encourage, and facilitate PPI in the short, medium, and long term.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-07) Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory FacilityThis Country Framework Report for Uganda, is part of a series focused on achieving poverty eradication, rural development, and economic growth through sustained infrastructure programs. Introducing private investment to the infrastructure sectors, lies at the heart of the Government's strategy to achieve combined sector restructuring, and liberalization. To this end, infrastructure development must be responsive to economic, and social needs, based on clear planning, and policy coordination. The report prioritizes on exploiting all beneficial options for private sector involvement, paying close attention to the development of effective incentive frameworks. Moreover, subsidy and donor funding mechanisms should be introduced to support poverty alleviation in the context of reform, while measures should be taken to ensure capacity is available to execute the reform program effectively, and provide for its coordination to maximize economic development. There should be a strong bias toward sector liberalization, except where this would result in significant loss of economies of scale, or scope, and, the establishment of an overall regulatory environment, attractive to private sector participation should be a critical priority, while protecting the interests of consumers.